(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Keyboard training in harmony : 725 exercises graded and designed to lead from the easiest first year keyboard harmony up to the difficult sight playing tests for the advanced students"

Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from the 

ARTHUR PLETTNER 

ISAMcILWRATTH 

COLLECTION 




SCHMIDTS EMOTIONAL SERIES 



KEYBOARD 
TRAINING 



IN 

HARMONY 

725 

Exercises Graded and Designed to Lead from the Easiest 
First Year Key-Board Harmony Up to the Difficult Sight- 
Playing Tests Set for Advanced Students. 

By 

ARTHUR E. HEACOX 

Professor of Theory, Oberlin Conservatory of Music. 
Author of "Lessons in Harmony," " Ear Training," "Choral Studies." 



PART I. 



PART II. 



Price, eaehi $1.125 net 



The ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT Co. 

BOSTON NEW YORK 

120 Boylston St. 8 West 40th St. 

Copyright 1917, by Tk Artkmr P. Sc*m Co. 
ImrrmatiomJ Copyright uatnd 



Preface 



The object of this book is to furnish a graded series of exercises for practice in 
harmonizing melodies and figured basses at the key-board, so arranged that the pupil 
is led gradually from the easiest first-year work up to the difficult sight playing tests 
set for advanced students. 

The material was prepared and arranged in the course of several years of harmony 
teaching, where pupils are required to "realize" each problem at the key-board, and pass 
annual sight-playing examinations before a committee of Theory teachers. Through 
this training alone, many students have been enabled to pass the harmony sight-play- 
ing tests required for membership in the American Guild of Organists. 

The arrangement of the material is that of a handy manual for systematic daily 
practice at the key-board (preferably in short periods). The subjects are taken up in 
the usual order, and the key-board work may parallel any standard work in harmony. 
The figuring, in the figured bass, is that familiar to most American and European mu- 
sicians. In order to include some representative French examinations, a short chapter 
is devoted to the peculiarities of the French system. 

The sources of the exercises are various. The greater part of the first 680 were writ- 
ten expressly for this book. Those from examination papers are so indicated. Nearly 
one hundred (from 642 on) are typical examination questions from the sight-playing tests 
and paper work of many of the finest music schools and universities in both America and 
Europe, together with an important list of the problems set by the American Guild of 
Organists, covering the years 'O7 to '16. The Author's request for these materials, with 
permission to print them, was met with a most generous response, and he wishes here to 
express the keenest appreciation of the beautiful examples and the courtesy which ac- 
cords their use. Full credit is indicated with each exercise. Especial mention should be 
made of the cooperation of Mr. Warren R. Hedden of the American Guild of Organists, 
of Mr. Frank E. Ward's, contribution to the subject of "Sevenths", and of M.Vincent D'Indy's 
beautiful MS given in facsimile at the end of the book. 

Oberlin, Ohio, 1917. 



Figured-bass is the whole foundation of the music^and is flayed 
with both hands in such a manner that the left hand plays the notes 
written down, while the right adds in consonances or dissonances , the 
result being an agreeable harmony to the glory of God and justifi- 
a/ble gratification of the senses; for the sole end and aim of general- 
bass, like that ff all music, should be nothing else than God's glory and 
pleasant recreations. Where this object is not kept in view there can 
be no true music, but an infernal scraping and bawling. 

Johann Sebastian Bach. 




Table of Contents 

(N.B. The numbers refer in every instance to the paragraphs) 

PART I 

Chap. I. Triads Page 4 

The Primary triads in Fundamental Position, to harmonize a bass, I. To harmonize a soprano, 2- The soprano 
leaps, 8- Change of chord, 4, Bass repeats, 6- Rule for no common tone, _ Cadences,?. Rule for common 
tone, 8- Harmonizing first six tones of scale, 9- Tendency of scale steps, 10. Review primary triads, it- First 
inversion, 12- Successive Chords of the Sixth, 18- Second inversion, 14- Secondary triads in major, 15- Thirds 
of sec. triads, doubling, 10- Rule for n-V, 17- Rule for n-l|, 18- Secondary triads in minor, 19. Augmented in- 
terval, Special rules for minor key, 20- Inversions of secondary triads, 21- Triad on Leading Tone, 22- Permit- 
ted Consecutive Fifths,28- Three successive chords of the sixth, 24- Doubled third in successive chords of the 
sixth, 26- Similar motion of all the voices, 26- The Sequence, 27- Sequence design, 28, 29, Sequence in mi- 
or, 80- Phrygian cadence, 31. The figuring (5 ), 32- General review, 33- 

Chap. II. Chords of the Seventh Page 36 

Chords of seventh formed, 34- Dominant Seventh, 35. Triad (vu) not independent, 38. Introduction of Dom. 
7th, 37. Resolution of Dom. 7th, 38- Inversion of Dom. 7th, 39. Licenses in resolution, 40- The Dom. th, 41- 
Table of all the primary dissonant chords 42- Use of Dom. 9th, 43- Leading-Tone seventh, 44- Diminished sev- 
enth, 45- Secondary sevenths, 46. Cadencing progression, 47- Double function of Leading-Tone seventh, 48- 
Cadencing sevenths in fundamental position, 49- Significance of the Cad. res., 50- Tendency of IV, 51- Other 
resolution*, 62- Introduction of sevenths, 63. Resolution, 5V Supertonic seventh, 55- Supertonic ninth, 56- 
Various resolutions, of the secondary sevenths, 67- Freer use of the sevenths, 58- Mastery of conservative 
usage, 69- 

PARTII 

Chap. III. Alterations Page 3 

Alteration presented, 60- Rules for, 61- Application and exceptions, cross-relation, 2- Special alterations 
in major, 63- Dim. 7ths by alteration, 64- Augmented Sixth, 5_ Aug. sixth chords in harmonizing a melody,66- 
Progressions compared, 67- Augmented sixth chords "not of the key", 68- No limit to resolution, 69- 

Chap. IV. Modulation Page 12 

Modulation by means of triads, 70- Half and deceptive cadence, 71- Suggestions for harmonizing a choral, 72- 
The tendency chords of a key, 78- Modulation through the Dom. 7th, 74- Removes in the key-circle, 75- Mod. 
by the Dom. 7th to next-related keys,7. Modulatory inflection, 77- Reaching a new tonic, 78- Passing 
from key to key, deceptive resolutions of the Dom 7th, 79,80- Modulation by the Dim. 7th, 81- Modulation by 
the Aug. six-five chord, 82- Sequences, and use of any form of the Aug. sixth chords, 83- Modulation by the 
Din. 7th on the raised fourth degree, 84. Sequences by way of the dim. 7th on raised fourth, 85- Modulation by 
the Neapolitan chord, 86- Special intervals, enharmonic notation, pivot chords, (Ex.65). 

Chap. V. Non-harmonic Tones Page 28 

The Suspension, 87- The Preparation, 88. The Suspension itself, 89- The Resolution, 90- Passing-tone and 
embellishments, 91- Appoggiatura,92- Anticipation, 93- Comparing the unornamented harmony, 94- 

Chap. VI. The French System of Figured oass Page 41 

Examinations by eminent Frenchmen, 95- Significance of special figures and signs, 96- 

Chap.VII. Examination Papers from Various Sources Page 44 

(In this list the numbers refer to the exercises, not to pages) 

A fig. bass from Bach's "Thorough Bass" made "for his scholars 1 ', 841. Eight different basses on one choral, 
Kitte] (Bach's last pupil), 64S American Guild of Organists, sight-playing examinations from 1907 to 1816, 
644-677. Knox Conservatory of Music, 678-79- Cornell Conservatory of Music, 680-81. Oberlin Conservatory 
of Music, 682-841. Harvard University, 687-90. Columbia University, 681-98. New England Conservatory of 
Music, 694-90. Royal Conservatory of Music, Moscow, Russia, 697 -99. Trinity College of Music, London, 700- 
703- Royal College of Music, London, 704-14- Oxford University, 715-16- Cambridge University, 717-18- 
Paris, The National Conservatory of Music, Chapuis,719-tt. Lavignac,7tt. Gabriel Faure, 7-Guilmant,724- 
Vincent D'lndy, (Tbfc Schola Cantorum), 725-t7, Facsimile of M. D'lndyt solution of No.7t6, Page 62. 



Ex.1 



Keyboard Training in Harmony 



PARTI 



ARTHUR E.HEACOX 



Chap. I. Triads 

Primary Triads in Fundamental Position 

1. To harmonize these basses (at the key-board) observe the following rules: 

(a) The bass must be the root of I, IV, orV. 

(b) The common tone is always kept, the other voices progressing to the nearest chord-tones. 

(c) The soprano will begin on the root, third, or fifth, according to the figure over the first bass note. 

(d) The alto and tenor, with the soprano, will form a complete triad in close position. (In review, 
solutions in open position are recommended.) 




C I IV I V I 



F I V I IV I 



e i 



I iv 



1. 5 




n 1 






r i 




2. 






3 






^ 







3. 
ty. 


*=T 


|* 


^Tn 




= 


^i 


Ti 


V V ^ 






-^ 






t 


-^ ' 


!E 


/ 


c 






1 & 






-** 


















4. 1 



-o- 



5. 



6. 



t-i, ey i ex 



7. 




8 

IT "^ 


rr - ] 




a. 




8. 




5 

B i=; ' 


n 




8 

51 1 




9. 
**- 


It 


b 






* 1 


r^ 


- >L 


E! 


j 


r=J 




^ 






^~- 


> 


S 






y ' 








ft 








1 pj 





&. To harmonize these sopranos observe the following rules: 

(a) The bass must be the root of I, IV, or V, but the soprano may be the root, third, or fifth. 

(b) The last chord will be I, the tonic. 

(c) If the soprano repeats a note, do not repeat the chord but change to another. (Chord repetition 
has a legitimate place but the purpose of these, first exercises is better served without it). 

(d) The bass should not leap two fifths in succession in the same direction. 

(e) The chords should be so chosen as to provide a common tone which must be kept, hence for 
the present the succession, IV-V, or V-IV, is not available. 

(f) If the soprano does not end on the key-note, it may require some testing to decide whether 
the mode is major or minor. For example Nos.12 and 18 must be solved in minor or the rule can not 
be kept. Let the pupil show why. 









* >9 1 -* 



CIV I IV 



C I IV 



a I (Remember V is always major). 




" 



r r f r 



" 



a i iv 



Copyright 1917 by The Arthur P Schmidt Co. 
International Copyright Secured 



8 



16. 



17. 



18. 



J J | J0J | ii 



s 



r p 







V 

3. If the soprano leaps from one note to another of trie same chord, the inner parts may follow 
it above a stationary bass as in Ex.2. Here the upper 'three parts must always present the complete 
triad. This kind of movement adds much to the very limited resources. 

4. The change from one chord to another is most- frequent at the bar. In chord repetition above 
the same bass note, the first appearance of the chord should be on an accent if possible^ except at 
the first accent of a phrase which brains on a weak beat (Ex.2). 

Transpose the model to other keys, and then harmonize the following 
sopranos 

Model of a chord-skip melody with chord repetition 








Ex.2 



(a) 




19. 



A. f * F IF 










~~m 1 P 












n 


(g)!' -+ 






6 




~ek P-4- 


. f= 








U- 2 


1 


-Sf- ' M 

CI 


1 M 1 ' ' H 1 

V I V T- TV I V I 



20. 



2 r r r 




r i r i 



I IV I V- 



21. 



J ij J i r 



r 



VI. 



* 









r ' r T r 



23. 









I i 



A. P*. ll38 



6 



5. When a given bass repeats a nole the chord will, remain the same but change its position. 
This is the converse of ty 3, and is illustrated in Ex.2, if the bass be considered the given part. 
The leap of an octave is equivalent to a repeated note, Ex.2, (a). 

Harmonize the following basses taking advantage of repeated bass notes 
to make the soprano more interesting 



24. 









-f 


> 










!! 


_^_^ : _p_ __u __ 


25. 






i- 




i 










r. W rJ rJ rJ 1 1 1 

& G t -^ gj & G G 

i i 26 - s i i i i i i-i 


























u 


















^ ^ p ' 1 *J- y i* yy 


J J 


3 


1 


I 


f i 


1 


* 









/:. u ^ y \.J fJ m m jiH 


-* "/ 


|- 




















27 




3 
















# 28. 




F ! 


* 


f- 


B;_ 





r~ 


T| 


r 




"i nn 1 i u w% 4 \ " | i [ 1 f 


.v ^ 
29. 


r~r 


F 


1 

r 




i 


i 


1 

^ 






I *~ 3 'ti H 8 


31 




) 




-J 


i 


* 









J 1 J f f 1 e H- B 2 cJ 1 * \ rJ rJ rJ 1 |" _l u U 

M it 




: 1 


\ 
















P J If- -r- IJ J IJ r J IP ^ 1 II 


_JJ1 


,-1 




- 






^ 








6* G G --& * O 



6. In all the previous exercises a common tone has been kept, but the progression IV -V or 
V-IV has been avoided. Triads whose roots are on adjacent degrees have no common tone. 

RULE: If two successive chords have no tone in common the upper three voices must pro- 
gress in contrary motion to the bass to the nearest chord-tones, to avoid Consecutive Fifths and 
Octaves. 

The progression IV-V is better than V-IV. In the latter, avoid placing the third of V in the 
soprano. The bass should not leap the interval of a seventh, as at (a). Play all the following 
and compare them by ear. 



L-Tone in Sop. 



-jf- t i 1> 




8S 




*J^ , 

B^=J 






n 






03^* 


=TT~ 


I.> Q 


^ i o 

Con. st*! 9 


Con. octs. 


P 

Bad. 




; 

Good. 


c 




=8- 



Good. 


it o 

Good. 

^ ii . 


orr 

Fair 
-" O 


Possible. 
-*- 1 O 


O- * 

Bad. 
h 1 - 1 e 


Bad. 




c 


IV V 


IV V 






V IV 






(a) o l 



Ex.3 



7. A closing Formula, or Cadence, is formed by arranging the primary triads as in Ex.4. 
Cadences are Perfect or Imperfect according to the last note in the soprano; Authentic when the 
last two chords are V-I, and Plagal when IV-I. 

The progression V-I is the typical so-called Cadencing Resolution or Progression. 



Play the following Cadences in every key, then harmonize the basses 

Perfect f\ Imperfect ^> Imperf-rt A Perfect 



Ex.4 






n 


/i. "I " 










IE n 


BCHE 


if 




75s" I~ 


1 u 




(S)'P d 


g a 


8' 


OD d 


IZ 


I 




vt 


TO a 


P g 








a gd 


1 


W 


8 | 


Authrnti ; 





^g- 


Auth 


^SF 1 

ntic 


iFr 

3 


FT 




8 


L 


^y 


^ 


4V _L 












V i 






















/ fr 




^ 








/* , 










m* 


^ 




M* 




yo r^ 




.X tp 


fV 










J rj 























g 






































1 1 




V I 

Imperfect 


VI VI 

Imperfect ^ ^ 




i i 
V I 

Perfect. 


Tf 




xu 


I 




jr , 














l^m ^** 




^ 11 


*i 


\ 


i 


/t 






, . . 








\s5 




igj fl 


3 


ti 


- 


. 


1 




^ ^ 




4> 4> 


MOM 


a 


-" Wi 


6) 




5 


i 

i 


Si 


* 


Cf *r 




Pla^al orChur 


:h Cadence. 


J: 




j*5 


rj 




-**s 




/o 


^ 




-:-|t 4 - " 5 










^f 




-P 






^f 




-& - 






.X 




^ 





32. 



33 

. i fc / ft J n,l 



IV 



84. 





E p^~ Z 


-^ 1 1 ^ 





r 






' n" *J~ 










~~f 






; 
















ar 




. ,_ 


J 


; 







a 






D -^ 












M 










o o 














.. . , 




\ 1 * 


1 1 










R 










; 






1 






















36. 


8 /rt 








n 








:$ 


7. 




I 
B 




























^ \ ^ 


Ift rff' 






^ 










_ 
















i 


















** w 2 




















^ 


/ 














r j t 


y 














>^ 


e r 


- r r 














J 


JL 


I 


, 
1 




r 








14 










-P 






38... 
i: g t 


^M ' M 

m 1 

1 * = 


1 h- 






4= 


















T 








\ \ 

4=F 










-h 






-* J -*-j 


t= J r - 


i 




i 


rf- 




If f- 






^ 


- 


1 










i 


^=4 


^ 




-.* 




i_ 






39 '1J 1 


t 

^^^ 


^^ 







< 


=F= 




! 


9 


* 




M 





4 


i 


7- 




1^ 




> 


| 













40. 



3 g 






-I I'x n::is' 



. a __ 



8 t 



, 

V ffj } gj 



P 



43 
^ 



8. \ 






-o- 5 - 



PHI 




44. 



fe r r 








v 




f-1 


P ^ 








i 




-iH 


^-F 




j 


P 


~* f 9 


EX 


v^y 












^^ 






~H 




^ 




j 




~"^B ^^ 








J 

Supply Alto and 

1... 4_ 4_.. 


Tenor. 


-J 


1 


1 1 


n-^ 


-= h- 




l 




^ i 




| h- 


1 




-*^-p j -_ 


J J 


-p-l 




3 




K_J _j- 


i J 







3EE 


-F 


i f 


-h- 


-9 * ' 









r 




KJ 






t 




B 





m 


II 







Q 



45. Before playing the following read again pars. 3-4. 






i 



~rr 



^ 






V IV V I 



46. 



47. 



| 



48. 



J _ ._. _ I _ . _ I _ .-& - (2- 






49. 



j 



^2 





I 



Ex.5 



8. Thus far strict adherence to the rule of keeping a common tonefll) has been justified 
cause of the importance of establishing, in both mind and fingers, the habit of observing this prin- 
ciple. It will, however, conduce to greater flexibility in Jhe movement of the voices if the rule is 
now expanded to read as follows- 

RULE FOR THK COMMON TONE 

A tone common to two successive chords is usually kept in the same voice, but if not kept, the 
upper three voices progress In contrary motion to the bass, to the nearest chord-toneh. 

9. The first six tones of the diatonic scale may new be harmonized with 1, IV, and V, in fun- 
damental position as before, in both major and minor, asr ending or descending (Ex.5). The unme'l- 
odic character of the bass, occasioned by leaping from root to root, may be excused until inversion 
is introduced. 

Transpose to other keys 




Ex.6 



10. Not all positions of the chords arc equally good for the contrary motion allowed under the 
rule in f 8. For example, the strong tendency of the Leading-tone in the soprano to progress to the 
key-note, in the progression V-I, prohibits Ex. 6 (a). In like manner, but to a less degree, the down- 
ward tendency of the Subdominant (four in the scale) in the soprano, makes it best to reach it from 
below if it is to ascend. Flay and compare (b), (c), (d). 



(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



7*r si 












^ 


^ 


15) ** }> 


t\ 1 }? 


i 


mm * "* A % 


%j u. .4*. 

Bad. 


* * 

Good. 


,y '<{ 

Poor. 

-^^^^ 


Good. 


*> - -S. 








CV I 

L-Tone in Sop. 


Subdom. rr.ic hi-rl from 
below may ancend. 


Tendency of subdom. 
contradicted. 


(c) corrprti'd. 



Harmonize the following sopranos according to W 8-10 




jj r i r r rr u r jji 








M i w rr 



^^ 



^ 



^^ 



fe 



^ 



it ns 



10 
55. 



g Mr 




[rir~r i 



56. 



A. 


-> FJ * 1 JM p JB^i 


r * r 


fffi 


K ' * / 


p w. i 


^V 


'4- * a 


ii 


& 
57. 


1 1 m III' 
i 1 i 1 i 1 i 


i 




* n 




^^L 


y 1* - \ ^ m m m m ^ 






' * > i m ** m F i 






Km m \J I \ I \ m 9 nm 




58. 


H (^ ^J ) 




59. 


L_^ _j r f -F SE ^- 


rrrfr r ' 




>h ^ " ^ 1 


r^ | 






I 




> 1 r r D 1 '-' c 


i 


^v V^ 


' \ r^ r* & 


A II 


60. 

dL 


T* ^ 

J 1 r~^ T3 1 i 1 1 1 I 1 K 


J ^ TJ 




^-n- m m -e ^ f , m --= ^ n- 


^-~T> srd 



General Review of the Primary Triads in Fundamental Position 

(f) (c) (b) (a) (d), 



Ex.7 









(e) 



11. Example 7 contains essentially all the points involved. 

(a) Cpmmon-tone kept in the same voice. 

(b) No common-tone, contrary motion to the bass. 

(c) Repeated soprano, change to a different chord. 

(d) Repeated bass, chord changes position; or, soprano leaps from 
one chord-tone to another, the chord not changed. 

(e) Common-tone not kept but contrary motion to the bass. 

(f) Repetition of a harmony, from a weak beat to a strong, at the 
opening of a phrase. 

All the following are to be played according to the above principles. 
The first few are very simple. Those who have studied harmony may be 
able to begin their harmony playing at this point. 



61. 8 

*l: f u 





&* 






n i 




o 











g> 


fj 1 




62. 
^f| 


a 





S3 ....j 




F^=\ 


-J tp z. 







f 






u_j 






'-Si 










u 


S " I 


. ~@ 




_ 


.. J 




^=$= 



63. 



11338' 



11 







73. 



I V I IV I V I 



V I- 




Primary Triads in their First Inversion.- Chords of the Sixth 



. The vocabulary is now I, I 6 , IV, IV, V, and V 6 - The following examples contain 
essentially all the typical progressions: 



Ex.8 
Ex.9 

86. 
*>:ft 


fl 


(a) 


" 


(a) (e) (b) (b) (f; 

1 J J (II 


it ?i 






I rJ frj 








fj & rJ rJ f-j i< 


eg) > 


5 & 


^ 


O fi> & & rj- --(^ **^ 




^T^ 


=^ 
A 


f^r^-'r r T i 
i i j j. i j 

.Jr^sL jfii ^ -r" ja t" 


4i: 3 






^ n T < % 


- x 2 

C 


pi , (^ fj 

I I f T 

I P V I 6 I V I iv V 

, (b) (a > , (d) fb) , < b ,> ( *1 (b \^ . 


if 1 ? 






\ \ \ m \ \ \ 


JF^'~ r> 


I*, 




/d 1 /d ^ J 


Jn^ I' ^ 


\j A 


m 


^i^Mid d^T "id 


v>v/ 


X5 M 


I 


rj *jf d v w ^ y d do y y o 


*fr->T., 


i 

==e=i! 


i ' 

ti 


. | p o -^ 

- - c) ^ 
g gf E f" g E f 3 1* P - f 2 n 


6 

(a) The root doubled in the Chord of the Sixth 
(b) The fifth doubled in the Chord of the Sixth. 
(Avoid doubling the third until presented in f 13) 
(c) The common tone kept in an inner voice rather than in the 
soprano, for the sake of a better melody, 
(d) Repeated note in the soprano, same chord used, but inverted 
under one of the two notes, 
(e) Open position for a few chords permits a finer solution. Sometimes the 
whole exercise may be done in open position (at the option of the pupil). 
_ (f) Rule for contrary motion (fe) does not apply to successive chords where 
either one is inverted. The progression here (IV 6 -V) is called Mixed Motion. 

Transpose Ex s. 8 and 9 to other keys, then harmonize the following 

6, 6 6,6,6 87. 8 6 , 6 i 6 

-1 .-. 1 1 \ i ii i: ^ 1 9 r*- 


./ g p 

88. 8| 


=%= 

6 


-4f- 
1 


-^-J < -v:- -J 

6 i 6 6 I 6 i t 89. 5 6 1 6 . 


4V SI 






A 1 41' 


i* 


J P 




m m L II /' i* -1 P J P 


z_ 31 ^-J 




rj 


fj i\~ \\ s \j m r m \ 


4- 






m m 


4i: r | r j 


6 




1 ' 1 9 II 
90. 3 6 6 66 


>/ [ 


--K p 


--** 


H 



91. 







3 6 





r if u if 



92. | 



vin r i r 



93. 



* ..6 






94. 
*} 


> 


-v*- 


8 

= in 




p- 




(j 






rH 






u 


i 


^ 


> 


^~ 


L T 









'V 


^ 




* 13 




*> 


11 


1 



95. 



8l n 



Ji 



6 

Z- 



96. 



3 u f i 



r 



J J 



97. 5 . u I- 



I" I" 



Z= 

- 



V 



^ 

w 



. ^ 

f I 



99. 



V 



IV 8 



' J 



J 



r r 



100. Unfigured 



101. 



J 



|r r r 



Use the chord of the sixth as before 



102. 



J r ip r if r ' " 'J 



J 



m 



r 



103. 



! i "i H ' ' M Mr T i 



14 



13. In successive chords of the sixth in close position,with a stepwise bass, it is correct to 
double the third in one of the chords to avoid consecutive fifths and octaves. Certain positions 
permit doubling the root and fifth alternately, but for this some experience is necessary. In gen- 
earal, have the roots progress in parallel sixths with the bass, and if in doubt double the third in one 
of the chords, but never the third of V 6 , which is the Leading- tone. For exceptions, 27,28. 

A B 

( <f> . + (b) <- 







i 



Ex.10 



i 







m 




6 6 



6 (5 



6 6 



6 6 



(a) The third doubled in IV, the root in V e . 

(b) The fifth doubled in IV.e, the root, in V 6 . 

(c) Consecutive fifths, and octaves corrected at (a). 

(d) The fifth doubled in IV, Leading-tone doubled in V (poor). 

(e) If the Leading-tone in the soprano followed its tendency to the Tonic, consecutive octaves 
with the bass would result; furthermore, the leap downward in the soprano, when its strong ten- 
dency upward is so evident, produces a disappointing effect. Test at the Piano. 

(f) Successive chords of the sixth without a stepwise bass, no need of a doubled third. 

(g) All the voices progressing in similar motion while the chord remains the same, permissible 
if consecutives are avoided. 



104. 



Transpose Ex.10 (A) to other major keys, then harmonize the following 
figured basses and sopranos along; the same lines 



366 



105. 



-Jt 



ft 



6 6 



106. 5 6 

yy J 






f 



~f* ' 


5 


-f3 


p- 






i^ - 






^- 


IM 




- 


^ 


-d- 


P' 17 


rJ- 


J * 


f h~ 

















1 ' 


H 






M K^ 


_j p^ 


'1 J ' 


1 ii H 



Use chords of sixth where suitable in all the following sopranos 
108. 109. 













1 V 



Begin in open position 



^ 



^ 



^ 



^ 



f 



-- 



F 



IE 



10 



Primary Triads in their Second Inversion.- The Six-four Chord 



Ex.11 



k The most important Six-four Chord is the Tonic Six-four in the authentic cadence. It 
must be on an accented part of the measure, or the accented fraction of a beat, and the V which 
follows it must be relatively unaccented. The bass-note of the six-four must be doubled, i.e. the 
fifth of the chord. So strong is this formula that any six-four chord on an accent tends' to declare 
itself a tonic chord and promise a closing cadence which, if admitted at an unsuitable place in 
the phrase, gives it a weak and halting character. 

Since this accented tonic six-four chord resolves so emphatically to the V (and in fact is a 
V with its third and fifth delayed), it should be preceded by some form of the subdominant or 
tonic harmony, for if preceded by V, virtual chord repetition from weak to strong beats results- 
a poor progression, par. 4. 

From the above, it is evident that the introduction of a six-four chord demands more than 
ordinary care, or it may spoil the phrase which contains it. In Ex.12, the six-four chord is 
shown on unaccented beats, introduced in special ways. Under these restrictions the six-four 
chord is largely shorn of its power to promise a full close, and in this subordinate relation be- 
comes a medium through which the voices pass, rather than an independent harmony. 

Closing Formulas,- The Authentic Cadence with I!i on an accent. 

ff> 




(a) 

m 



HE 



l 




A 



(f) 









11 




I An eight-measure sentence or Period 



3 




* 




8 




Ex.12 



a 

i 







7dT 



(0 



I First 4-meas. phrase. 



Partial Close [[Second 4-meas. phrase 



Full Close 



(a) By far the most important six-four chord is the Ij on an accent, in the authentic 
cadence, _ a full or complete close. 

(b) The close is partial when the phrase ends with a V preceded by an accented I|. 
Test these phrases at the piano. 

(c) Secondary value_the root prepared, the bass progressing stepwise in one 
direction, seldom or never accented. 

(d) The bass the second of three repeated notes. (Weak) 

(e) The bass the second of three notes belonging to the same chord. (Little value 
till the bass is treated somewhat contrapuntally. 

(f) The figures (J,) or (\^) over one bass note, require first a six-four chord, then 
a chord in fundamental position _ usually the progression IJ-V. 

Transpose Exs. 11 and 12 to other keys, studying them thoroughly 
through the medium of both eye and ear; then harmonize the following 
exercises with vocabulary: I, I 8 , 1, IV, IV, IV, V, V e , VJ. 



MtfciUM* 



16 



112. 



S 4_ 



6 
4 



113. 






6 

4 3 



TTT 



114. 



8, fi 



5 6 



3 



6 4 



^ 



^ 



116- L ^ .. E. 4 8 Oi 



117. 8, 



IT' 



/rJ g 



TT 


cn 





-p 


s 1 




(5 , 
4 l| 

p? 






118. 


3 




6 


- *> 




(i 


(i 
43)| 


6 




s # 




.X [y fc .JM....... 










? 




D 


*' ' 


n 






& 




f \ 




-^ 


f J 








f e 



-**- 



120. 



l 



-*i^ 



i 



35; 



(> 4 Jt 



-6- -e- 



4 6, 



i_i 






r f j 



ttot 




122. 





Supply the alto and tenor. Transp ose to A, 1 1, F. 



J 



-e- 



(! 6 
4 



123. 



^ 

e 




1 


^ 




r~r 




li 

ir 


f- I 


S 

A 


= 

fi 


i^ 

6 


= 


=5 


^ 


-p 
o 




i < 


^ 

5 i 


P J 

6 
4 


i-fiJ 


t i 














4V ! O 


Szf 










































KLaL 


, 


4 J m- 


w 








/^* 








-j 


_ 
.^... 









^- Y| I 6 I 6 V 6 -k ^/f' V| I 6 It 



At * not Ig. Why? 



8.11338^ 



17 



126. 



Yl 



n? ) < u .1 



is ! 



IV IS 



127. 



I" IS 



128. 



Vt '* 



TT. 



130. 




129 UnfitTUrcd Seek to use suitable inversions 
* ' in the following 




j 



r r ir i 



131. 



r r ir 



P 



132. 



J 



J M r r 



- 



Use a % correctly at each+, otht-rwisp treat as 
N.B. In meas.K thesis on the second brat. 



Secondary Triads in Fundamental Position in Major keys 

15. The triads on u, in, and vi, are subordinate chords used in the following three ways: 

(a) As substitutes for the primary triads (u for IV etc.). 

(b) As connecting chords, preferably with the bass descending by leaps of a third 
to successive^rpots. Roots ascending in thirds are weak. 

/ (c) As independent chords. 

(a) The n substitute for IV: the vi for lithe in for i. (b) 

A ^ 



PPP 



m 



m 

(P) 



m 



m 



m 



Ex.13 



(IV) 



(IV) 



(I) 



Strong 



T 



*=$ 



nV nV Vvi ImlV 



in 



VI 



II! 



(C) 



m 



(IV) 



m 



m 



in vi 



II 



18 



16 The thirds of the secondary triads are the principal tones of the key and may be doubled 
rather freely for the sake of a better melodic outline. The upward tendency of the leading tone and 
the downward tendency of the fourth and sixth degrees of the scale, especially when in the soprano, 
must more or less determine the chojd to be used and the tone to be doubled. 

With the introduction of the secondary triads and the resulting increase in the number of pos- 
sible progressions ranging in value from good, to fair, or poor; the student must depend largely on 
the study of models compared and tested by ear at the keyboard. Here dependence on rules, or eye 
memory, will not at all suffice. 




i (e) ^-^ (f> 




(g) , (h) (i> (j) 




Ex.14 



Bad. 



In Ex.14, study the various progressions from u to V. 

(a)(b) The n an excellent substitute for IV, and with the same treatment, i.e., contrary 
motion to an ascending tftiss. 

GENERAL RULE FuR n^ 

Give up the common tone and lead the upper three voices contrary to an ascending bass. (Does not 
apply in inversions) 

(c) The common tone kept. Possible here for the sake of the melody. Not recommended. 
Improved at, (d). 

(e) Bad on account of the objectionable Covered Octaves. These in the outer voices are 
especially bad because the soprano tone (F) has a downward tendenrv ($ ie) and is, nevertheless, 
compelled to ascend. 

(f) Good. The inversion of V and the ultimate downward resolution of the (F) in the 
soprano are excellent. Here the commpn tone is best kept. 

(g) (h) Freer treatment of the voices, but good. 

(i)(j) The n after V. Use seldom. If used these are among the few fair progressions. 



Ex.15 




ii 



18. In Ex.15, study the various progressions from u to I|. 

(a) (b) An excellent substitute for IV-If in the closing cadence. (Compare with Ex. ll) 

(c) Impossible on account of the consecutive fifths. 

GENERAL RULE FOR n-l| 

Lead the upper three voices contrary to^an ascending bass, and avoid having the fifths of the 
chords above the roots. 

(d) The common tone is given up between IV- H, in order to keep the rule for n-I|, 
immediately following. 

(e) VI as a substitute for I (Tonic function). This is the best position of VI. Its third, 
the key-note (root of I), is best doubled. This is called a deceptive cadence because the I is ex- 
pected instead of the VI. 

(f) Complete descending scale in major, harmonized by the use of in-FV beneath its 
seventh and sixth degrees. 

Transpose (f) to every major key. 



T9 



Harmonize (he following exercises 
(The 11, m, and vi in major keys) 



133. 



8 
4 



134. 



III 



135. 




^T" 


ifn 


^ 




a 


8 
_L^. g__ 




F 1 




n 






n 
: ._ 11 T 








1 L_ \ 






6 J-f= 








=J 


E 


>5 






^ 




P 1 


^EEi 



Li " 

V : L ih 




-i 










6 








1 Ti 1 


-<^ > V' 
iC 


c* 


^r 






j-- 




1=^=: R J 








1 



13S. 



_ 

j | I 




139. 



140. 



ate 






4 



141. 


t 






8 


P 1 






8 


R 
4 






6 


8 
IT 




| J ^ ^ 




L 


i* | 




' 




L 1 


= 


1 J ^ Q 









-rt- 



142 


L 


t 


5 

k rt g_ 


9 




n 










p 






y " 










-'vvi^- 


1 








tt= 






















1 | 



143. 




144. 







146. 



vi IV II 



I 6 IV V I 



147. 



* r r <r r ir 



II II 



s 



-O- 



f 



148. 



V IV 



vi 



In 



AL. J * 


^-1 1 


J J J S3 




(fP P g S^ 6 P 


--6^ U -3B '& F 1 




149- Unfigured 


1 1 




, 




1 




MS (' > 




A j*2 n \ ?* v /*D 1 






'> JJ ' 


V P, . ..P . ,,\\ . P* W 





Make suitable use of occasional secondary triads 



150. 



a J 



J 



J J 



r 



r 



r 



151. 



Z /3 /D n F 

^r "r 'r I 



152. 



^ -*-*- 



r 



r 



In the next few exercises are some of the less common progressions. 
153. Study again Ex. 14 (g) to (j) and 15 (e). 



ilXEL f* i 




p- 


5 




P 




ii 


> 














r 


i 




9 




-p 









=1= 






-S "( 


i 










i 








(i 




- 




















- 

A 











j r r 
i 


_v 














i 


> 
























> 






A 









f. /* I 






































A 














-i 


J \) m 








































P 







































































154. 

M 1 




































i 


t 
1 
















/ Jtr ^ , i 
















*, 











































i 


!9 




i 9 




-^ 


f 




-( 


S> 






3 








-$ 


73^ 














i 






= 






1 






k 
/: 




-1 
















6, 


6 | 










_^ 


B 

5 


j - 


4V 't 






















































/ ' f i f l 




























^ 














/^ r 












HZ t * ; r 
















i 














H 






^ 


rj 




r 






i 


V 




" 




















































r^ 


1 
155. 




I 


























1 












1 1 










*| 






































A 






P, 




1 


P 




m 


A, li ^ A 






























A 


A 




P 


p ] 














i \ f^ 


nn " J P 







3 
























P 


r 






1 > 








/ . 






m *J 


VM7 






^ fl 




'^ 






^ ^ 


4V 










t 


1 




































j< 






6 




9 




4 


t 




i 
< 


> 




1 
I 




, 

* * 










6 1 


4V i 












5 










-^ 
















i 






p 








i 


f. y n 




^ 













p 






P 
























fe 1 


1 




p 


S k Ju a 




-ff- 













-JB 










-^ 


*c 








31 







1 




7 r 




1 


r <-k 



Secondary Triads in Fundamental Position in Minor keys 

19. The subordinate triads in minor (n*, III', VI) are used in the same three ways as those 
in major, but with far less freedom. The u^> and III' are both dissonant chords, sometimes ap- 
proached, or left, with difficulty on account of the augmented interval (fi-7) in the Harmonic mi- 
nor scale. The most used progressions are shown in the following example which should be stu- 
died and transposed to other keys. 

(b) 






& 



-tv 







t 



ii H 



Ex.16 



AUK. 2. 

Bad. 



Bad. 



-*- 







as 



& 



-*- 



F 



n V VI 



m'vr 



n- V V VI 

Special rules violated. 



(a) The VI as a connecting chord. 

(b) The ii" a* a substitute for the subdominant. (Far oftc-ner used in its first inversion, $2l). 

(c) The III' as a simple triad, best resolved to the VI (the cadencing resolution). 

20. In Mrirt writing no voice may progress an augmentod interval, and while this restriction 
is quite properly disregarded under certain circumstances, as for example, in chord repetition, the 
student should rigidly adhere to the following-. 

TWO SPECIAL RULES FOR THE MINOR KEY 

Ffule r. In the progression ir-V, give up the common tone and lead the upper three voices in 
contrary motion to an -ascend ing bass, Ex. ill (b). 

Rule 2: In the progression, V-VI or VI-V, double the third iri VI and do not omit the fifth. Two 
voices move contrary to the bass (d). 



156. 



The n, HT and VI in minor keys 
_J \ 8 









v * r ir r 



158. 



s. 







^ 



159. 



* ^ ^ 



160. 



irrir" ir r irriNi" ;: ^P 



161. 



, i f , 
iJ r ' 



>: 



^ 



P 



P 



-- 



V^ii 8 T* .g 

ylliU ^ I 



fe^Jg 



r ir r i 



163.. % 

^r r 



1 



r iJ r j i 







APS 11838* 



164. 


i V 


VI IP 

i i 


165. 

M 


vi vi m vi 






8 Jf W 






n a 


j"L f 


r ^/-j/rj/^r^ 1-2 




ff 


rj rj ff vt/f 


ffH * 


- f r^ n r* l 




r 


| Q<V 


ViLJ 


r 1 1 1 1 1 I 


166. 


d i ! I I i 
Unfigured. Locate secondary triads at suitable places. 












i n 










uZ3 , ' 


1 n n 


^ in ,, n -D 


^^% T 


" ' r 




Er^ 


i ' rv 


rJ & & 


r rJ . ff 1 


\SL/ 


3- 










1 '' 1 II 


167. 

rt 


I 
i 


T~ 1 


1 


\ \ 1 ~T~ 
1 I' a ~ n -P-m ~ 


V 


O f 


3 


^rt 




K> 


> - i i i ^v ^- 


35 t 


r 




'J t* m 


1 /r? 


\ 






ZZ 




. 1 P ., 


- -^~ . -l 


o rJ KJ 


1 1 1 



Inversions of the Secondary Triads 

. The secondary triads are all used in the first inversion, frequently with doubled third, 
and preferably in the octave position, i.e., with the root in the highest part, but conditions may 
justify any position and any doubling. 

The best of all these chords is the n fi which in both major ana minor is much superior to 
the fundamental position, and is the best substitute for the subdominant. Its bass, the third of 
the chord, is the subdominant and the best tone to double. The position of the fifth (fifth 
highest) h* the poorest. 

The treatment of the other first inversions is best learned from the examples, and through 
practice in harmonizing figured basses. 

The second inversion of the secondary triads is of little value. If used at all it must con- 
form strictly to the requirements of par. 14. 



Ex. 


/ 
17 


A. f * M 1 


R 




55 )c 




^J 3 


-. 


25 












f_: 




f m 1 ; LS 


K/ 




CK Cr 




a 




' j 




:0- 


jg 




f]* 






^ 


2 




VA7 p' 






F*^ j*" 




^3 




c* 




JE 


Ff 






2 


^4 ~~ 


tl 

i 


\ 




fi 




^ G 1 
6 




9 

6 





-6 




t 

-B 

A 


1 

i 6 


^5 ^J^5 

(IV) 


&V 


^Q 




^ 


rj 






j^ 


^ 


i 


-\ \ 


D 


/ /* 




3P 










<^ 




*\J 




i i 


1 f J 


J \ i rj 




















PJJ 




h* 




A * ' 


If 






























1 - 




| 


m 6 


II 6 


Vie 


1 




V - 
n 


Jr 




^ 


fo> 






1 xaH 














^^T 


^_ 




(^ -v pj 






i T 




O EZ 











i ^^\ 


















tLjf. 










^i V^ 


P ^1 






W 








i C 











(a) Same rule as for n-V and ii- l| ($ $ 17, is). 






r r ' 
i 






(IV) 






o 










6V 






/T3 




JQ 


C 5 
















/' 




J 


W f* 






J 








3 


i^ 




T. " \ \ 




ft I 








* 








J 


* 








^ 










168. 




1 

v r if i 


Inversions of Secondary Triads 
169. 

c? i C 

' ^ n X ^l ra =^ ra 1 


" 


c 


1 

4=p== 


6 

O . 




6 
4 




4 


r*- 




4 
i 

3 


1* 


! 

~" 


rb 


1 






6 


(9 




6 

F 




6 


-^i-.fiLJ e 

6 
6 4 

1 1 , 


\j__5 


T -i* 












.x n/ c^ 








a> 


= g-gL ^ J ____U 



170. 




m. 



|jjr 8 fa 








~ 










































?3 


li 




(1 








= 


1 







r, 
(I 


, 
' 








K 


t= 


6 
4 






















=t 










jJ 




^ 






^ U 




i 


= 


=j 


*> 



173. 



o T/7 



TT 



174. 



e 






r 




^ 



I7o. 



=5F 



? 



i 



-**- 



176. 



9 



W V vi 



ii 



V VI || I$ V 



177. Un figured 

. tn f 3 



r~rrr 



178. 



24 



The Triad on the Leading Tone 

. The Triad on the Leading-Tone is a dissonant, or tendency, chord and like the Dom- 
inant Seventh Chord from which it is derived (fl-36) it resolves regularly to the Tonic, rarely 

to the VI. 

GENERAL RULE FOR THE LEADING TONE TRIAD 

Use the Leading Tone Triad in the first inversion only, double the third, or fifth, and resolve 
all parts siepwise to a complete I or I 6 The fifth progresses up or down. The consecutive fifths 
which result from the proper treatment of this chord are unobjectionable, one of them being di- 
minished and not appearing with the bass (outer part). Sometimes the third, and more rarely the 
fifth, may be left by a leap. 

All the progressions in Ex. 18 are equally good in both major and niinor, except that the de- 
ceptive resolution is best restricted to major only. 




(c) 



(d) 



(e) 




(h) 



(i) 



Ex.18 






m 













" 


"i" j 


- 


: 










j 


* 




. j 


1 


_ 




m 











5 


hi 


rr 
j i 


VII6 

J J 


| 


L 4V m w 




m m 







M m 





f' B 







p 





w K 




-A ff _ 


9 


f 




r 


r- 


-* 



Ex.19 



(a) to (f ) Typical regular resolutions of vn. 
(g) Doubled third, one third being left by a leap. 
(h) Doubled fifth, one fifth being left by a leap, permissible 
but not usual. 

(i)(j) Deceptive resolutions to VI, not frequent, avoid in minor.' 
(k) By using vnothe major scale may now be harmonized. 
Transpose (k) to every major key. 



33. As a rule consecutive fifths in the order diminished to perfect in an upward direction, and 
perfect to diminished downward, are permitted, provided the bass is not one of the voices which 
produce the fifths. .In the case of triads, inverting one or both perfectly 'meets these conditions, 
Ex.18 (d)(e)(f). 

34:. In three successive chords of the sixth with the bass ascending stepwise generally use 
close position, and double the fifth, thkd and root in succession; with a descending bass, 
double root, third and fifth, Ex.19 (a), but see also ft 25, 26. 



35. If the upper three voices all move in contrary motion to the 1 bass the third may be 
doubled in successive chords of the sixth as at 19 (b). This is frequently preferable to a merely 
mechanical observance of ty 24 t especially in approaching a cadencing six-four chord. Here, as 
in $ 18, the fifths of the chords may not appear above the roots. 



(c) i (c) i (c) 




6 6 




p 




t 



6 6 




6 6 



From I or I 6 with doubled root, to n with doubled third, similar motipn of all the 
voices is permissible as at Ex. 19 (c), but here avoid the n in the position of the fifth (fifth 
highest). 



A/PS. 11338? 



25 



Advanced Exercises in Triads 



180. 5, 



6 6 



* , 6 




U- H lisas- 



26 




V vn- P 



^ 



- V 




vn I- 



^^ 



r r r T r 



P 



n 



199. 



IV 6 V 6 



3t 



^ 



vn6 p n<5 je 



TT~ 



^ 



iPP 



^ 



2 2' Unfigured 




^ 










f 



201. 




2 



m 



i 



202. 




LiHtf, 4, =z 

Pa (b p r= 



p J I J J I p r IP rJ 









F 



203. 






The Sequence 

The Sequence is a succession of similar harmonies resulting from a symmetrical pro- 
gression of the given part. The initial design, or pattern, is usually repeated twice,or more, in 
an ascending or descending series, and usual rules for chord progressions, doubling, etc., are 
frequently disregarded in order to obtain the required symmetry. Practice in both writing 
and playing sequences is strongly urged as one of the practical ways of gaining freedom at the 
keyboard, and familiarity with the vocabulary of chords, and chord progressions, in all the 
keys. 



I 



Cadence 



7 


5 Z 


1 






^ 


. .... 


5H id 


^ 51 


P 








P5 P 


Jj 


f m 


' J 


j /^. 






2 


a 


!*5 5g 


1 fl 


n 








r ra 


i 






J5 


5> 






fl 


<3 


irJ 


r 








r 








S 

1 


- 




9 
2 


o 


3 

vn 


4 


r 

5 

1 




6 




1 1 
1^ 


8 


41* 














^_ 


| ^FJ 




^ 






v 




I' 






1.' , 






^ 


JQ 


r 






/o 




| 




j 


i 




i 






i J^- 




<J . . 


KJ 




K . 









Transpose to other keys 

In Ex.20 the first measure is the design of the sequence, the sequence unit The 
third of the first chord is in the soprano and the progression to the following chord is regular, 
the common tone being kept in the tenor. This design which must be connected correctly with 
the following sequence unit is then repeated five times in an ascending series, and at measure 
seven, the symmetry of the bass being broken, a cadence is added in the usual manner. Several 
otherwise questionable progressions are here good because they serve to maintain the symmetry 
of the sequence. For example, in the third measure, vir is used in fundamental position, the bass 
leaps an augmented fourth, (e to b^), and the common tone is given up five times across the bar 
without regard to the chords used.' 



(a) I Design 



Ex.21 




Transpose to every major key 



a cadence ' * ''"^ e " end ^ ^^ throu ^ -ever.l bars and add 



204 





A* ft. uaaH 



28 
209, 3 m 


el e 


6 6, 


6 


2S* I Z$ B ' R 


mm 





m ** U 


P WB I 


fJ P xo 


PP. 


A P m 


^r W \ 


p 


r " 


P P || 








11 


| 


1 1 


\ 

, i 


1 1 


210. 


1 1 


iV 1, 


m 1 . 






/L" f* P 


p 1 ^ 1 p 1 


i \ 




If B * J ' 1 


1 * r i 


m 




. . r . . . .1 _ 


- - 1. _ ...I tt . .. 


: 









r if r ir r r 



i 



8 

6 4 



^ 






P 



P 



30. A sequence in minor usually employs the Original Form of the minor scale,<hus avoid- 
ing the augmented second, but where the character of the design permits, the raised seventh is 
generally used, Ex.22 (a)(b). 



Sequence in minor, using original form of the scale 









tr 




1 






(b) 



Jr j 


L 1 


5 ' 


& 


~'\~& 1 


i! 


3= i 


3 i 


f3 








9 
3 


^i r> 
6 


6 




-ay a 

6 


4? i 

,6 j 


r L $ 

~^\ T~ 


8 

TT 


4^ 


} 


'J 


-~ P 


-P 


: * 


_p^ p 


1 r) 


rJ J 


U 



31. The Use of the Original 1 Form of the minor scale provides major triads on in and VII. 
Either of these chords may harmonize the natural seventh of the scale in the Phrygian Cadences 
(Ex. 23). These cadences should be committed to memory. They are especially interesting in har- 
monizing certain fine chorals, and are a welcome relief from a too frequent use of the more 
common endings. 

Note. Strictly speaking the Phrygian Cadence belongs to neither our major, nor minor key, although used 
in both. It is the closing cadence of the Phrygian Mode whose scale may be represented at the piano by playing 
the white keys from E to E . If played downward counting the upper E as one, the half steps occur between 3-4 
and 7-8 and the F, which is 7, is a leading tone downward, the true leading tone of this mode. The Git was not or- 
iginally any part of the mode and appears in the last chord only, to comply with a later demand for a major final 
chord. (Tierce de Picardie.) 



29 



Phrygian Cadences. Transpose- 



.(a) 



(b) 



Ex.23 



51, 



2 



o 

if* 



(d) 



f 



TT 




212. 3 



213. 3 



I I 



214. 



rfr 


L I 

f K 


y- 


9 i 

R 


1 

-S i 


~\ 


rr- 1 




r? 





^ 1 


rj 


^H 


73 p w 


-&- 


n~ 


9 


III fcs 




n 


8 


,.... _p^ 
: 


N 




a 









1 | 






s 


6 


f r f 

i 8 


: 


=3 

8 


6 


5 n 






fcV 


Si 






1 


^i 












2 v 




1 /D 




^ 




o 






J 1 













^ 








-p 






P* fJ 














-^ 


... .' . 








, , 


. 








61 


I 


at 


a 


P 










D 



21B. 8 't 6 K _* B J_. 6 "Z.lE 0- 

/* j iJ r r ir r r ir r r ir r r ir r r >r j 



Some lines from old chorals 

Ich will dich lieben meinc Stiirke. 1704 



Meine Hoffnung tiekei feste. 



1880 



/i f ff :Q 








_ .. . 


-? r 


fn Tin. IR 


u 1 


J /D 


i 1 / 


r i 


^o 


















fm tp /* 








<a a 


w rJ 


p it fin P 


CD 


W P* 




AV 


P* 




jfi 














vV 


^ 


f^ 








HMi/ 


8' 


I 






jr. 






- 


-^ 










ff 


B - 




(Ex.USC) 
I 


( 
.1 




-e- 
i 


1 

6 - 

i i 




8 

| 


\ 9 
I- 


1 






eJ 

6 


f 












t 






1 








1 




T 








A 2 










z 




/ IE 




I I 




I 










1 








j- tp 










P rJ 


L-*L. 


\.J IP 


Z33I 


a 2 




w 






1 xd rJ 




w 




LJ 





218. O Oott, du frommer Oott. 



Jr .i. 


























=^ 















' 


K 


1^ 

1 


1 













= f 


P 


D 




- K 

4=^ 




1 






5 * 




-|5 1*^ 














-tf) ^ 


L/ 


K 




^^ 




-P 



219. Christua dr unu hrilig m&cht. 



Abuat 1400 





T| j 1 


|-J 1 




1 ^ 1 




ij j i 






1 ^ 1 


fj. p: 

-rw r * #4 

y A 


- 




6 




O 
1 


^=^= 


zz a 




^ K 




o 

1 

it 




- K 




I P 1 


n 


r 


&/ Ci ^ 




r 





ao 

220, 



rv 



221. 



^ 



-- 



3H 



. A triad in fundamental position may precede or follow a chord of the sixth on the same 
bass note. The figuring is 5 6 or 6 5 according to the ord'erof the two chords. The intervals, 
6 and 5, must not be doubled and should appear in succession in one voice, usually, but not ne- 
cessarily, the soprano. In most cases one of the two intervals (the 5 or 6) is a passing tone and 
as such is usually both taken and left stepwise (Ex.24,). 



I7k7h n 










I J 1 


f 1 


< 








-e , 


-H 


r i 


tl 


pi 


& 






j 

J : iH 


*= 


? 

5 

33 


L_ yr 

i 

6 
f 




11 

* 




5 6 


6 
n 


6 5 
T~* 


-H 
- 


j 


Lib 


**- 


JJ 


^. 


Also go 


O 

id. 
in* 


n 


-^ 


o 1 


n 

n TR 






Tf 


i (IT 


') 


Tir 




5 6 


1% 


5 


** 


5-6 





V (in 8 ) IV 6 





V 










i 


i zn 




y 


* 


2 


"S~*~~ 


^ 


^ ~ 









-^9 * 


3 J- 




-m-* 


__ 







J i p 


J 
: 


p_ 




|L- 


8 





F") 






-J 




-^ 1 
RF== 


f 


r 


r 




i 




1*1 




F^ 


f 1 


* 


r 


r 




- 






' 1& 




=4= 


B 


, 9 
6 6 


<i 




4^ 






U J 


6 5 




5 6 


6 


5 6 






_] II 



222. 



65 6 656 



223. 3 







566 



6 6 



-*- 



-O- 



=? 



224 5 6 

^R" 



5 6 



65 



5666 6, 



66 



^^ 



225. 5 e, 



5 6 

It- 6 



226. 



6 ^.56 656 6 4 



227. 



_8 6 5 



ill 5 



-6- 6 



6 5 



f 



31 



General Review in the use of Triads 

33. Mr. Walter R. Spalding in his treatise on Counterpoint says, "So let the stud ant be per. 
suaded to acquire a sound and facile technique in the treatment of triads. Nothing will give him 
such a good foundation for future development when he comes to free chromatic writing." In the 
following review exercises the problems are grouped under four general headings, according to 
their character* and the grade of advancement expected. Thus the first set of sopranos can be 
used as review before any inversions are reachedi-while the last list, selected from examination 
papers, demands a comprehensive grasp of all that has been presented in the foregoing pages. 



228. 



^^ 



Basses- easy to moderately difficult 

229. 



230. 



231- { | y 

J r r ii iv ; ^ j r if r i'J-p-u-i 



36 



m 



. 

J 



j 



233 



" 



8 M 
6 4 I 



r rr j 



224. 



if u J 



^ 






3 6 



i 






CJ 



s 



B 
B 4 






B 
4 



i 



^ 



11 



237. 



5 6 



J J 



238. 



. 

J 



2 



239. 



666 



ii 



6 

e 4 



Ll 



240. 



{. f 



241. 



8 66 



" 



m 



r 



r 






6 6 6 6 




i4' U ni 



32 



243. 





r 



844- 



A 



... , , 

irr iJ 



245. 



-e- e 



l 






Tff" ' J [* Ifg 



-e- 



246. 



6 6 



6 

4 



247. 



' it o. "i 



8 , 6, 6 6 6 6 ^ 



^| [A n f ' <Q G c: 

j 14 1* f i r [^ 



r J i" r Tr 



6 6 6 



J i- J J U 



249. 



6 



65 (i 



" 



E 



r r . r j 



250. 8 , 6 



"i i i I . 

* li 



r i r 



->- 



Sopranos- vrwjabulary, all the triads (except vn,) in fundamental position only 
251. 252. 






RS33: 



-e- 







253. 



Q i r^ 1 



^ 



fr -<0 






254. 



ft* 



J J u J r 



r 



r 



255. < 



I 






rJ 



256. 









? 



n 



8. 11338 J 



33 



857. 



258. 



J |J 



J 



J | 



259. 



rrr 



Sopranos- All the triads and their inversions, including vii- 






' r |J J I .. 1 



261. 



262. 



r Ji r rr 



J i 




r 



r 



263. 



J 



-e- 







264. 









r 



265. 






VJJlrJJJI 



266. 






r 



267. 



I* IV Sequence 



^i-v^uriiuc . 

ir r 'r r ' 'r 

ir i ii 1 1 1 



i.j 






288.^ 



fe J J 



r^ \\ .ii i 



r ijjjjij 



269. 



I i . I 

J > |rJ J [J f f 






9m 



M' IU l^ 



34 



270. Old French Noel. 



-jfr 


j 


[ J i 




r 2 1~ 








[-, 


















' J ' 




BE 





* ^p= 


= 


! 




6 





1 




- 


' m 


9 







Tl 





J * 





#1 J J J I 


L 


F* 1 * 


1 




; 


i 




f^* 


1 




v 


_ , 










* f 


G)" J ^ w 
















-- 










' i~f 


f^ 


G 




r; 


' ' ~fl 



271. 



O Ewigkeit du Donnerwort. 1642 



/L * 


Fi 


P^ 










i 

rJ ri 




fi 


r^ 1 


i 


I 

I 5 * 1 








4^M 





j 




-7-2 











i 






r j i 


-^ 








a 



ft 



=*! 
























r: 


> | 


^i 




-^ 










-^ rr 


(to f 


s 




ts 


=Z2 




-A" 


J 




(V 


ra 




ts 


rJ 


- 






LJ :_fy 




-s 


Si 




' J ( 



Examination Questions 



All the following (272 to 289) are from examination papers that have 
been used in Oberlin Conservatory of Music for elementary classes. 
The student is advised to write as well as play them. 



272. 


n 


r 




8 




6 5 


^ 


l 


-f 


~^ 






- 






ti 
1 




^ 










273. 






T 


6 




j 


h 


r 




6 




6 


1 


274. 

ti 








3 




Be 

6 | 


4 




4 


t 






l 


6 






=1 




2 


7 


5. 






>~ 

3 




i 




6 






-1 




i 




^ 




u 


- O II 

fJ \ H 


61* ' 






































Jz 


' 




1 


j 


























n 


t' 












3 


^ 
























! 






T li 


Jm 






















2 




P i 1 


Z 5 


11 




f^ 


-f- 




Q 


-F 












e\ 






IT 






^ 


/ 




g 


P-n 


s 







if 








2 




-p 






t e 1 


27G. 








T- 

(2 




6 


l r 
e 

^ 




rs 










9- 




(! 




6 
4 












2 


7 


-1 

7. 








3 


-fl 


- 


H 

6 


, 




< -J ' 


6i* 




* 


1 






S 


^ 










ji 




rj 


I 


















Z 


l 




' f 


k 


















/ 


7 


r 


f 


























i 1 ^ 
















' 


i 


1 


/ % 


1 


















-X U 




t 


1 


\ 










i 
































E 




4 


k 










^3 i 


"V 






!/ 




*i 


J 
























1 


























^ 


I 


" , 














^ 


x' 








3 


6 


















i 


1 
1 




^/ 


6 




6 






6 




-o 


r 


1 










6 






6 

* 1 1 












I 




































5; [ 




























^/' 1 


n" 




f- 


i 


E 


1.1 






















-fe 


r 


ir- 










[ 


f 


l 


-f 





J 




tTff 







rf- 


-f 


^~ 


TTi 


279. 












5 

=f 


-9 
I 




i 


'- 

( 
^ 

>- 


5 







1 





M 

5> 




-y 

5 6 





|= 






i 


F 


a 


4- 

I 








H 






b^ 

6 

9 1 


H 

6 

Lx 


5 

; 


J ^ L. 
~P 1 1 


^ 






* 






1 


























-^ 






^ 




_ 


^ 




=^ 






:^2 








? 




1 o- 8 



280. 



" 



t I 



r 



? * 



r 



5 I t 6 



rr 



r 



m 



6 !_ 



282. 



I y? IV* IH n u 



l v 4 I 



J I'' 



283. Unfigured 










P 



r 



r-rr 



At the 4- use" chords, otherwise this is an unfigurcd problem. 



, ti (5 B 



i 6 







These 6'8 mean first inversion, root in soprano. (Not usual marking) 




Supply alto and tenor 



2HH. 



r^ 

i 


Ji 


-d- 






3=*>=A 

6- , r. 


=3=*=^ 

rt 


-cit M 


^^ 

* i 


^^ 

ki 




.1 J r J 




M 5 


^W 


r r i 









-* H 


i 






a 


W- 


K 




-1 
56 fl 


i 






o -^ 

6 1 


LZU 


o 




LJ BJ 


4 


(- 




U -J- 



* The fifth omitted. 



36 



Chap. II. Chords of the Seventh 

34r. A Chord of the Seventh is formed by adding another (upper) third to any triad. This 
added third is a seventh above the root and, since the interval of the seventh is a dissonance, 
all chords of the seventh are dissonant <5r tendency chords, requiring resolution; that is- 
they must progress (sooner or later) to consonant chords, chords of repose. The chord of most 
complete repose is the final tonic triad and toward this, as an ultimate goal, all the dissonant 
elements of a musical phrase tend to progress. The charm of many a passage depends chiefly 
upon an artistic treatment of these dissonant elements as they emerge from and disappear in 
the stream of the music. The dissonant chord which most conclusively resolves to the tonic, is 
the Dominant Seventh. 

The Chord of the Dominant Seventh 

(Primary Dissonant Chords) 

35. The Chord of the Dominant Seventh consists of the Dominant triad to which is added the 
next (upper) third, a minor seventh from the root. Ex. 20 (a) (b). This chord is the same in both ma- 
jor and minor yet different from all other seventh chords. Its third is always the leading tone, 
a major third, its fifth is perfect, and its seventh, minor. Containing as it does the most import- 
ant tones of the scale except the tonic it may be said to hold a strategic position in the key as 
Primary Chord of the Seventh. It is flanked by the dominant as root, by the subdominant 
as seventh, while its third, the leading tone, unmistakably defines the key by its tendency 
toward the keynote, Ex.2(> (c) 

36. The triad VII is not an independent chord but an in incomplete dominant seventh chord 
as may be seen at Ex.26 (d). See also par. 22. 



Tonic (d) VII 




Introduction of the Dominant Seventh 

37. In general dissonances require careful introduction as well as resolution. The seventh of 
the V 7 however enters with almost the freedom of a consonance. When the seventh is in the pre- 
ceding chord it is usually kept as a common tone and then said to be introduced by preparation. 



>(a) (b) (c) | | (d) | (e) (f; , 


| fg> 




| (h) 


JF 






/d 


f j /n 






d 




- >j 




XL ^-j 




j5 


<d 


^ 


O- 


a 


23 ; 


jjj 


S3 


* * < \ 




f* 






k? 




Q 


9 






^^ 


"Vy O 


rrj 




P & 


P., " 


f^ 


^ 


rJ 


(^' A1V 


. 


-*-^- -^^^ 


\ 




rT 

~TI 




. 

Ti 









Bad 


~8 rwTi 


L: D ) 1 


Le 


*-* 


f^.<g ' 


t r* 







177 


J 


R7 V7 


\T1 



Ex.27 (a) the seventh prepared, (b) enters stepwise from above, called passing seventh, (c) sev- 
enth and root taken in similar motion in chord repetition, (d) consecutive fifths, admissible, see 
par. 23, (e) seventh taken by a leap in an upward direction, seldom leaped to from above,(f)neither 
seventh nor root prepared, but these tones approached in contrary motion, (g) bad consecntives, to 
avoid, omit the fifth of V 7 , see (h). 



A/P8. 11338? 



37 



Resolution of the Dominant Seventh 

38 The regular.resolution of the V? it> to I. the seventh descending a degree; the third as- 
cending to the tonic, or leaping downward a third if in an inner voice with the bass ascending; 
the root le; .Jng upward or downward to the root of. the tonicj and the fifth usually descending a 
degree, but sometimes ascending for special melodi( reasons. If the V is complete it may re- 
solve to vi (deceptive). Among the many irregular, or less usual resolutions, shown later (Kx.3i) 
the seventh may be found stationary (delayed resolution or none at all) or it may even ascend. 
The following examples are representative and, except (h), equally good in minor. In funda- 
mental position as at (b), fifth omitted and root doubled, the upper root becomes a common tone - 
very good since this provides a complete triad on the I. 



-. 

/ 



Ex.28 




(c) 



(f) 



Foor 



(h )po98ib]o,maj.only 



ZEE 



ff* 



* H 7 



O 



n 



-*- 



ff 



BFSF 



-*>^ 



il 



m 







n 







m 



* Distinguish carefully the interpretations of * and 87. 



Ex.29 



-firri r 


.. 


- 




^ 


3-^- 





15) V 9 




Zl 




M 


-s- 




4J 




r 

i 










-*- 


- 


jJ 




P" 


*t 


-* 


CV; . 




92 












J* In T J 










p 




.^ n 













D 



Transpose to otht-r kfys. 



Exercises containing the Dominant Seventh Chord in fundamental position 



290. B 



7 



291. a, o 



I 



6 07 



N r ir r ir r if ri .n 



292. 



87 



5 7 



293. 

ylb 


5 


7 

P h 


r, 1 









e 

4 7 









H 


u 3 


^ ' *H 








<; 


k ga 






s 


n 








1 



2HJ. 


a 
-~o 


87 ^ 


6 
* f 




j 



4 

P ^~~ 


r" 1 


7 

h? 


N^ 






rv ] 


i ; 


r 


ri 1 




-4S-2 1 


1 1 
















i 






^J 




2 1 



1 f'X ns:is ' 



38 



295. 3 G I 

n fr 


8 


8 
56 ({7 
6 Jt 6 *___J 


4V Jt y <n 


,*> 


/D i n 


r If r* J 


<y > 


G G \ \ n 


z-jc r ., 






ri, 




fl 


;(u; 2 




^L 

7 8 7 

r # tt 


*"" 5 * 6 


fr 




d^ i i -^ ^\ 






9* 1 fl* X3 \^ 


^ ^D 


/O (^ 


J rt *!-' f**^ ! 1 


t^ 


^x r^ ^^"^ 


1 I 




^ 


W\ 3 I- 8 


6 


6 7 
1 6 I 6 jj_ 


V if 


| 


a 1 


/* ' T f * * ^ 




^ nn J ** 1 


^ ^ \ tt & 




Hd 1 -..- I8r 4 Vd. J ** . 



29. 



II 



i 



a 



299. 



< ~ t/ '- r ' c T~ VTT 

^ vns I i n V 7 vi l u 






n 




^ 


m 


f* 


ij 


^-, 






1 r^ m ^ 


r* 


/n f^ 


rj 










r* ^\ 






J \ Pi 


rJ I 


K 1 

















300. 



Q, 


V K V 7 iv V 7 v " IB V? 


Jr \ 


7 


L 1 1 /TJ 


















A. b 


I 


xr>. IP 




!Q 






r^ ^^ 














fm e 


I 


- 1 /^ P 




K 






PJ 




.jg 




2 H 







301- Unfigured. Use the V7 



A. f 


r> 






















' " 


I m * 


J <J 




















g 





302. 



r r ir r r r^^ 



303 



ir r r r ir r r J i j - r i j r r r 



W^ 2 



304. 



J 









''i> r J J IJ 



39 



Inversions of the Dominant Seventh 

39. There are three inversions of the V 7 , all of which are useful. Regular resolution to the 
tonic triad is by far the most usual. In this resolution the voices usually progress as when in 
the fundamental position except the root itself which is generally retained as a common tone. 
Complete figuring is seldom used unless needed to indicate certain intervals altered, as the raised 
seven in the minor scale. Unless the seventh is in the bass two figures are indispensable, those in- 
dicating the root and seventh. 



>(a) <b)_ (c) (d) (e) , <f> 


1 J J 
















fA 2_ 




ft f 





>J 


-> 


-J j " 




flT 




yn (4U J) 


^4 ** 


7 **- 


1 


iBj q 


O, 


O* 


Ex.3O 




i> * '++. 

6 


-* 

326 


^. ^ -*- 






-**- 


-/ ,-5 


L rr- 






-Z. D 


-> 




r r U 


m 




















8 R 5 i rt * 

5 or" 4 or* *J r2 

/j(K> | | J <h>J <i) | J <J) Frequ.-nt <k> Rare ( 1>| 


3 '2 <1 
3 

I l <m) ' ' 




/ Jr o 
















I 


1 T^ 





















" /r? 
























xH A 


















zs 


r& 


C* V f 




j J j 


-** 


fi 


00 


a 




^- 


1 


\ 

X 


rrr 


-fcji (S n -^ 










*'*> H 


-** ^ 






fl ' 




J & 












































2 '6 U 7 JT 2 2 6 7 


7 2 T 





fa) (b) fc) Usual resolutions, 
(d) Passing seventh in the bass. 

fe) The 3 2 over the same bass note requires first a triad in tho fundamental position and 
then a seventh chord in the third inversion. 

ff) Chord repetition-the voice having the seventh last must resolve it. 

(g) The fifth of V7 resolves upward stepwisc, the resulting doubled third in the I is not 
bad when passed through in surh a way as not to emphasi/c it. 
(h)fi) Two solutions for the figures ( H 4 ) equally good. 

fl) An apparent six-four chord formed by the flowing upper parts uead last lines of <| ID. 
(m) The third descends by a leap of a third with good effect. 




Transpose to other minor keys 






w 



Ex.31 



i 



TT 



it 



s 



Exercises containing the Dominant Seventh Chord in its inversions 



3or). 



3 



306. .1 



i=i 



3 6 6 



f 



^ 



57 



^ 



40 



308. 



4 
6 3 



662 6 6 



e 

4 



8 
7 









-O- 



309. 



8532 6 



6 
487 



6 _ 6 6. 7 



4v ft 




3 i 




H 1 9 F 


1 




E 




3 


p 






AJ 




=ff 






i 


-f-" * r : " - o B 


310. 


> 


* 
fc* 


r/ i 


ir r 
P 6 * 


7 


i 


F 


4 


3 


11. 
4H 




,'! 






I 1 - 

fr t 

'j p 




^ 


-e 

4 

H 


p 1 o_j| 

6 7 

b 6, 6 4 tf 
1 1 \ ' 1 ^ 1 1 * T" Tl 

J~P " ti 


312. 




3 




-4- 
2 6 




ii 
4 
3 


C 






' 1 


p 
- 


*V 




( 


\ 




t 


- 1 S 


L 77 r o U 
-t- 

7 

L____L_J 


frlli 


-jt 


^ 




f ? 


1 




i 




-|5> 




r; 






3 


? 


'j 






| F i" o . | 


. P 


3 


=1= 




\ tf- 


- 








^= 










3- 










_i i 1 i , ii 



-u 
8, 



26 



-e- 

4 



-4- 46 

326 5 6 



e 4 







i 


' i 


-^ 








r* ^ 


m L J 




1 








. , 1 


?' 






r 




P 


a 


















ZSS 1 


] 


4- 














1 1 




4| ^ 








M 










1 




i i | 








-- -ft- 


314. 


3 2, ( 


l 


i 6 


4 
3 


6 -* 4 

6 , i_JL_2| 63 






6 ~5 6, i J 


ZSS! 


O 




























I / 


J 












1 










I 1 






^f n 


K m 














rat . 


P 


-^ 














315. 



33 


"7* i 


T J p 




- 




7- 


H^-"^ 










P- a J 


P- 


il- 







P i - _ 


Gi 


*= 




t 6 
3| 6 5 






6 


5 


-6- 
4 
6 3, 


7 

i * 


4^ 

5 6 




-^^ 

js ;j 


* 

7- 


z ' 




6 
4 


= 

LJ 


6 


4V 












^ 

























m* i 


J* 


2 








* m 


^ 1 


r 




EZ 


i i 


| 






l 


i i 




-^ 


^ J 


r u _, 




M 




r 


' K 


J 




















-* 



or 'f '6 



316. 



TJnfigured 



I 






P 



n6 



V 7 



318. 



J I J J I J j_ r g J i J 

r ^ I & " \ f ) I r " \& 



r 



r 



319. 



J r IP J 



. >' f I 7^ f> ,Q U -J pC ,0 _J A 

^T r if T ' i 'r T 



-o- 



320. 



B 



41 



321. 



m 



322. 




s 



M 







P 



323. 




r c/ |rj J U ^ '^ r ir c/ i^ J LT if j '^ 



324. 



A. IT J ^ 


u J 


,1 ,-j 


u J I a r j 


* 








y I /! 




75 


(cpv ^- & 


f*~ 


h^ -F- 


Jtd "- 


[ 








= H- 




&. &! 1 


[j w 

325. 

, rt L i 




-f- 


U| ) L,_ . 








H- 
1 




1 ' ' 
i 


V i 7 > , 


* 


i 






t _ 












m 








A. b " f * 


_i f 




^ 




^ 


, 


tf', 








I p 







x> 


W5 







j 




I 1 n 


- 








a 


. 






p w 




_ 








1 












| 










1 

X 6, S 


t 
, 


2 


1 1 
8, 7 ^ 8 










2 


,; S 


1 




1 
87 ^ 










P 




| 










f *- 


W - 


' " 


J F- 




2 


~P * 


m 




_ 2 



Some of the Irregular Resolutions of the Dominant Seventh 

.(a) I . (b) I (c) I (d> (t-) (f) 



i if ^fp.-.j 


11 


^..r^-.-j 


11 




i) 




















-Ar 


. 


, _ 


. 


, 


. 




K 






< 


k 




o ?? 


-* " 




























. -%> 


~ * ^ 


n 


^~ 


^-^_i 


^ 
** 


^ ] 


~s~ 
-* 




it 




rrm 


J 


LA 

n 


-* 
r 


^^. 


4- 

Bad. 
Cov. oct. 


7 8 


II 


5 8 
6 




r :, 










8 




7 


8 


7 8 


7 8 



(j) 



* ** ** 



(1) 



(m) 



" 



(n) 



H 



a 



o 



*- 



fT 



8 *> 



o o 



o 



Good. Par. 2 a 



Poor. 







n n r 



7 
S 



fl 
4 



587 



(a) (b) (c) (d) The seventh passes to some other note of the chord before resolving- 

(e) The bass takes the note (in lower octave) to which the seventh would resolve, a resolu- 
tion by substitution. 

(f) Less fine than (e) but fair. 

(g) Shows the impossibility of resolving the seventh directly if a given bass resolves it as 
here, the resulting covered octaves being highly objectionable. 

<H (i) Excellent progressions with the seventh ascending. 

(J) Poor to have any voice move stepwise Into a unison with a stationary voice (oblique mo- 
tion into a unison). 

iki(l) Passive resolution, the seventh may or may not ultimately resolve. 
(m)(n) Some other figurings that will be found. 



42 



Exercises containing some irregular resolutions of the Dominant Seventh Chord 



326. 



7 8 



6 
4_ 



*V.| 







U 






9 




^ ^ 






^ 




P 






y/ t? 2. 














4 




L 








' <9 







6 



6V 


O 


n 




1 1 








'J 




a 




J* /* 




e 




r j 














sL 






X 1 J fj 








/v 






p* 






















1 






1 
















1 1 





41* 










^ 
















z* 










& 




















./ |j n 




^ - 


' 




\\ . 






f^ 






.,.*). 


rj 







329. 



4 

3 6 



62 6 



4326 



666 



6 

4 7 



^ 



^ 



330. 3. 567 66 






6 3263 



6^7 






331. 



f, 7 .-* 

r MIT 



,. 

4 



57 



332. 



8 7 



t= 6, 






-fr 
4 
3 



6, 6 



6 87 

. 









331 



333. 





5 23 












| J J 


=1=1 


|J Jl | j 




*T~ 


Ll^_, 




-J 


i J 

R 7 6 

670 


5 










-J l J 

6" 




^ 


3 












-e- 

4 

-75 


6 


Ir ,j 6 . ' 




HE- 


Jo 




rJ 


\m 






r r 




11 " J r j 





TV ~" 




y- 






j 1 


d 


TT^ 












1 


7 a Z 

H 4 


6 
5 


i 


- 

4 
3 


- 


1 1* 


! ; 


i 

6 

5, 6 


e 



J 

7 


J 
5 


HP 

5 


N 

7 


o 






s 





























1 









j. 


J 


A 












.X U 


f 




-P 






1 





-P 










1 



43 



334. 


v^ i vj- v,. i' 


==M 


J 


1 1 

I 


1 


f\ M 


r 3 i i 




Jr ff 


en JG & ft fr> ... _ ... 





J^L 


fa -- ... P /o P A 


1 


T ^^\ 


p* i p^ p' 




; 




I 


335. 


T 

Unfigured 




r 1 


J Ji /O /D /O* A ^ /D I _. 




^H_ Q 


4-/r*^ ^ yy y P/oP IP 






JlnP^Wr r " 




52ir 


s 




336. 

o , 


! 
i 1 i 1 1 ^^f\ \ \ 




Jr I 


* ^^1 1 




/t Jf 


, i ^ 






-L13 J f _ J_ _J ff _, 









Ex.33 



40. P'or the sak*- of obtaining a more advantancous position of th- parts, a hftt-r melody, 
or to avoid monotony of treatment, the dominant seventh chord resolves irregularly in still other 
ways than those shown in example sz, but the progressions shown in the following examples should 
be regarded as licenses admissible to the student only after he has thoroughly established his terh- 
nic and matured his judgment 

Good Beethoven- Andante. Op. 4,N- 3 




The Chord of the Dominant Ninth 

41. A dominant seventh chord enlarged or extended by the addition of a third above the 
seventi becomes a five tone chord named from its largest interval the Chord of the Dominant 
N'inth. In major keys this added tone is a major ninth above the root (sometimes minor by 
chromatic inflection, f s) and in minor keys it is always a minor ninth. 



in. ft'.* 1 




cv 



v 

Dom. maj. ninth 



cy? 



V* 

Dom. mm. ninth 



In five part* 



Regular Resolution 

In four parts, the fifth is omitted 



Ex.35 




8E 



I 
7 



5 ^ 



c v 



44 



In the dominant ninth and its resolution to the tonic triad is found the basis of con- 
struction and resolution of all the Primary Dissonant Chords. In other words the pri- 
mary dissonant chords, in both content and tendency, show themselves to be more or less com- 
plete foi'ms of the V 3 (orV 7 ). That an incomplete form whose apparent root is the leading tone, 
as for example the VH, does not take a cadencing resolution (ty 44)' is additional proof that the 
real root, which is always the dominant, is omitted. Before going further it will be well to ex- 
amine a table of the primary dissonant chords. 



Table of the Family of Primary Dissonant Chords 

The root of all these chords, whether present or not, is the dominant and they all re- 
solve regularly to their tonic triad. 



In major 



In minor 



Leading tone triad 



Leading tone 
seventh chord 



Dom. major ninth 
(Never used in minor) 



Dom. seventh 




(a) 



) fl8 V*** Leading tone triad 



im - seven th chord 
(? qtim* (Frequently borrowed 
for use in major) 



Dom. minor ninth 
__ A3.* 1 (Sometimes appears in 
major by chromatic 
inflection) 



Dom. seventh 



V 7 



I 



Introduction and Resolution of the Dominant Ninth 

(b) . (c) (d) 




(e) 



i 



f 



rs 



Ex. 36 



P 



Bad positions 
9th 



n 



V 9 



V 9 



me 



9th 



rt (f (f 


!) (I 


i) f, 

\jLj r t * 


, , j i 


J J J | 


n i 


1$ 8 " 8 


o *-* e 


^ r r 
^ : 




t . 


= 

. 








JV D O O 


3> <~>* \ i 


*i. IP 










F5 * 




i *- it 












P* 


J A % 7T 1 1 




* > 
















/ i 










1 


766 

A 3 


6 




987 1? 6 5 
7 R a . 




AP 8. 11338? 



On the use of the Dominant Ninth Chord 

43. In Ex. 3 (a) (b) (c) the ninth, like the seventh, being a primary dissonance, requires no pre- 
paration, but preparation of either ninth or root conduces to smoothness of entry, especially in minor. 

(d) When neither ninth nor root is prepared they should be approached in contrary motion. 

(e) Keep the ninth a full ninth above the root This excludes contraction to a second and also 
makes the ninth below the root impossible. (The ninth below the root can be found in modern works). 

(f) (g) In four-part writing, only two inversions are possible. Exactly as with V the root in < 
an inversion is best kept as a common tone, the other voices following their tendency. 

(h) Conservative treatment places the ninth in the highest voice. At (*) the ninth in the tenor 
is clearly a passing tone. 

(i) Here the ninth in the alto is a suspension. It is important to study these figurings (b) (i) 
(j)(k) for in higher examinations the student is likely to be confronted with similar problems. When 
the figures are given in full as here, it is a suggestion of the required interval for each voice 
respectively. Not a good practice but sometimes unavoidable. 

(j) Interchange of chord members. 

(k) Passive resolution as with V 7 . There is usually ultimate resolution but this is not necessary. 

(1) Giv-n to illustrate a necessary procedure with this figuring. The 7 must be in the octave 
above th'e e-, otherwise a second will appear between the root and ninth. Compare with (P). 

Note in addition to these points the apparent resolution to 1$ and to the III" in (-|). These are 
scarcely more than accidental chord formationsorcasioned by the flowing parts. They lie pass- 
ively between two forms of the dominant harmony. 

' ' * *_ 

Models to be transposed to other keys 

(It is important to study closely every full figuring) 

The descending scale usinff vr (,) 

(MA .. U . 



Ex.37 




46 



Exercises containing the Dominant Ninth Chord 

4 



337. 


5 








7 | 








2 4 

4 6 3 i 


6 


4 7 


fiV j 










'V 






n i 


in 1 




"V II 


i. * 


' r 

















f v jCf 






-^ t 


5 jT. 








rj 






rj 


P" 1 Kl 




1 




















1 




C 


338. 


'i 


{ 

5 


i 






i o 

i 1 1 






! 

f 7 * 


1 1 
4 
. 3 

139 

-p-i-n ro r ^ H 


4 

* ' Q 

?=fc 


6 
5 


f* t 


1 








-H 






H 


J. ff a 1 : 


F- 


a o f 9 " 1 


J \. 


J fj 








rj 






*i 










7 
6 



4 
3 



*g. 






B f2 \ 








1 r* f j 














r 


J 






j r -> 


K, E 






\ 


P 








vL 








341. 




3 4 



6 
5 4 



9 
7 
tt 



* 

2 



I . "l 

s 



t 
6 3 



-HM> 



g^r^ 



F 



F^ 



F 



342. 







"" 









2 6, 



I 



'i a III 



^Sf? 



v 'p r T i r r 






E 



F^ 



F 



>>M ;j . 



344. 



9 8 

. i= 



^S 



657 

4.b 



"/Ll'i 3 .. 



P^ 



^^ 



-^- 



345. 


765 9 9 8 
, a 1 343 6 7 _ 6 , 7 


~~2Tt* i ' 


' II ' " 


^ 




















. " f 


ii C* 




r^ p: 





* F 




~^ T~ 








'V 








if 1 


L| __(_ 1 


f- 1 ' 


I [I 1 








L_a 11 



346. 





i * /^ 






r; rnza 


^ 


rj 












-S 


-^ ^^ ^^ 


J 




"nH~ 


' O P 


,-r 




fj 








1 










r 


P rJ fA 




viy 


3E 




























J ( 


eT 


1 


4 
7 jj 




1 


7 






6 










1 1 

987 
765 


1 

765 
3 




ij- 


^ t 






6 
P P 


5 

T 3 1 


rH 


6 


-- 5 


->; 


^ 




--h- 




987 


" o 


- . 


? g P 


f 




r r 












4 




fc 


-A* 5 


_liJ 





347. Unfigured. Use the V 9 and inversions where suitable 



^ 






35 



P 



^^ 



^ 



348. 



^ 



i/r r 



r 



349. 



EfEEE 












^ 




^^ 


-* 


in 


^^ 


E 








O 



350. 




J ir r r nrr rl 




IZ2 



> 8. 113.18* 



47 



The Chord of the Seventh on the Leading-Tone in Major 

(Also called the Leading- Tone Seventh). 

44. The Chord of the Seventh on the Leading Tone In Major is a dominant major ninth 
chord with root omitted. The omission of the generator (the dominant) does not affect the char- 
acter of the remaining chord members which are introduced and resolved essentially as in V. 
Like the complete major ninth, this chord can not resolve to a minor tonic. 

For simplicity this chord is figured as a chord of the seventh, and as such should be complete. 
The best positions keep the seventh (original ninth) in the soprano, or at least above the lead- 
ing tone. The third inversion is rarely used since the original ninth is too harsh in the bass, 
except where skillfully handled. Arensky in his "1000 Exercises" and Tschaikovsky in his 
"Harmony" use this third inversion, always resolving it to a lH chord. For a typical example 
see Ex. 38 (e) below. 

The typical resolution of the root position is to a tonic triad with double third- The con- 
secutive fifths which result in this resolution when the third of the tonic is not doubled are ob- 
jectionable and must be avoided, except as at () where the fifths in the inner voices come 
under f 23. 

In 38 (-X-X-) the vn } is such to the eye only. It may be explained that the b and d are 
passing tones and therefore the bass (root of IV> is free to leap, or if preferred that the bass in 
vir| leaps a fourth downward to the root of the tonic. 

The resolution to some inversion of the Vi and the passive resolution are natural derivatives 
of the regular V progressions. 

Study the progressions in Ex. Ss u\ ear as well as eye. Learn the best ones and transpose 
them to other keys. 

The seventh (original ninth) in soprano: these positions are best. 



Ex.38 













fr\ 11 


Bi> V " 




I) < % 


HI) fv 


^v i* }? 


tl 




' If 


" n 


J 


* ^ St 


-** n 5- 


11. AX 


**- 


CB 










f 










S " " 


" 




" 


_I1, ll 


VII} 


^ 


6 6 
5 


=S= 7 




5 4 









(b) 



iginal ninth not in thr soprano, less satisfactory, but possible. 













-M H 


^' 


-* n 


*& ft* 

Q 


* 


L^ 8- 
l, -* 

-w n 


E 


-H # 

o ** 


- EJ * 
o ** 


=#= 


! EX 


_* " * 










- ** 


- " 



8 I 



IV (vii|) I 

Uie of vu.j 




\f* lt3H 



48 



Exercises containing the Leading Tone Seventh 



351. 
-vi 


5 

| 


7 






6 6 
-fS> ^ 








6 






f? 


r*~~ 


51 


7 


1~ 
i^J 


6 


TT 3 


3 


i 

1 


6 




6 * 


352. 


i c. 

5 








=M= 

7, 


S 






6 




6 
5 




6 






7 




I 




- 
6 






6 
4 7 


~^7l 


j 




-<9- 




H 








rj 


i 


-^T 




p 






=4= 




d= 




& 






" " II 


2 







4 
















^ 








- 


s>- 














= " 



(Ex.38, ^meas.) 



353. 



6, (3 



2 6 



3366 



6 
47 



T J / 1 1 ^^ 


f? r j p 


_. j j 




, /^ 


r \ 




^ ^' IJ ^/ 


n f -* r 






e 








o 












354 B 2 6 


1 

6 
7 5 6 


7 II 




1 

6 
5 6 6, 


& 
687 

475 




6V n O 


(3 \" J rj O ^ 


. 










f W ^ 




n 






_ ^ 




S 9 " n 


O | | 1> 


rJ rj r 


J 




1 




/^^ ^- '-^ 








& 


I 




355. 5 6 


1 ' 

6 
4 54 
3. 6 3 6 i 


1 

6 
7 5 




6 


6 

4 I ! 




^1* yb (5 




j*T> 








n II 




1 


P r m 








1 


j-^ > * ; 1 P /rJ 




r 




g 


fj rJ 




^ / (V 


O J 


m 








II 


1 I 

356. 5 


^ 

6 
26 5 ( 


1 1 

4 

> 3 


6 




6 6 
5 4 
3 




6V i. 














/* > f ^ 














ZHi_IU2 23 















(Ex.38**) ** 



3 7 - u -F i I' - 6 5661 , 67, 6 475 


6V n * 










V 


^ 




v ^ 





















g 


/' fTi 


. A 


















( r 










p 


J m 








rf^i n 


z 


! ^ 




1 1 






















2t 













p n 



358. 8 2 4 3 2 61 7 6 6, 3 2 6, 6 6, 6 , 6 3 6 6 4 7 



359. 



3 ' 



6 









360. Unfigured. Use the Leading Tone Seventh where possible 





'i~rl 


i n 


^ 




s 


5 






& 1-|9 


p^ 




9 






"J r-, 


Ft= 




1 


-^ 


LJL 


S ' 






=M 






r n i 






Q 




= 






5 <9 




n 1 



361. 



i 




362. 



TT 






363. 




8. 118889 



49 



The Diminished Seventh Chord 

45. The chord of the seventh on the leading-tone in minor is called th- Diminished Seventh 
Chord. Like the dominant minor ninth chord from which it is derivcd,its regular re>olution is to 
the tonic minor triad. (By alteration thtt Dim. 7th-chord i* often used in major*. Composed as it 
is of three minor thirds, this chord presents no perfect interval in any position or inversion. 
It is used with great freedom in fundamental position, and in all three of its inversions. Because 
of its peculiar construction, it can be spelled in several ways, though sounding the same on the 
piano (enharmonic notation) see also f 64. To be sure of the correct notation of the chord 
for any given key, place the leading tone of the key at the bottom and spell three minor thirds 
in succession above it. Thus for example, the diminished seventh chord of the key of c minor 
is b-d-f-a!>, not gS because f- gl is not a minor third. 




Introduction and Resolution of the Diminished Seventh Chord 

(b) (c) (.1) (e) <f) (g) <h) 




^ff 



11 



*> 1 



ti ;; 



i> 



*- 



ir 



4> 



u 



*V 



Ex.39 



Not 



^ ^ 



*V 







tt 



Possible 



O ffll-fcV 



-- 



-*- 



TT 



TT 



*> 







> 



' 




(J) 









(m) 







(n) 



(o) 







*s 









Pass. rrs. to J 



f <9 > 

t 



Passive res 



o ** 



to 6 











31: 



IE 



" 






Ex.40 



4 5 



vnj.VJ 



^ S B^B i 
-- a - 4 -4- 

fl 5 4 a 



6 
4 4 

-e- 



(a) (b) Typical approach and resolution to the tonic. 

(c) Leap down, not up, to the root, avoiding thus the augmented 4th. 

(e) (f) (%) Various consecutive fifths- 

(j ) Passive resolution, (k), resolution to the dominant seventh. 

(I) Augmented Intervals are permissible in chord -repetition. 

(m) May be analyzed in more than one way. The F major triad alternates with the dim. 
7th. chord, or it may be called an F major triad as long as the F continues, enriched by the 
use of passing-tones and embellishments. The main point for the student to grasp here is 
that figuring of this kind is not infrequent, and requires care to obtain a good melody. 



Transpose Ex.40 to other minor keys 



I ! ti ris - 




50 



Exercises containing the Diminished Seventh Chord 

364. Supply th'e Alto and Tfenor 



PPi 



n 



* 



7 



S 



6 

4 6 
-S- 4 6 



P^P 



f^W 



365. 



56 



6 
7 5 



-t 
.S 



B /? 



-4- 

3 



-- 
5 



ep5 






-- 



P 



366. 



3 



3 



P 



6 5 ^-tf- 
-4-565 
8 



6 
6 4 



4 2 



7 (5 6 



i 



8 7 
6 (5 I_ 

-w fl 



^ 



^p ^^JJIJnJ JJI^^ 



367. 




fj , i ^ . 'J "~ TJ "[ , ' |f j ^ I . Z. '-' "I 

o rr ji| t j j r i r rr j ir^r ir^iiJ-'ir frirr J 'rP 



B ^ i 

6 3 



8 7 



65 6 



"6" M 

566, tf, 



370. 



6 5 (5 

4, 3 4, 6 -+ 6 -- 
2q 3 2t|4 3 4 5 6 




371. 



J/ . 


s rs 




>2 


p 




^ 


9 




rT - 


& 




& 


& ~\T 3 a 








-*^ 


J 














\ 










T r 


a 


f^ 







372. 



a minor 



Fr r i 



v P 



~rr- 



373. 



I 



8. 11338? 



51 



The Secondary Seventh Chords 

(Secondary Dissonant Chords) 

46. All chords of the seventh other than those on the decrees V and tt are called Sec- 
ondary Seventh Chords. Being for the most part more dissonant than primary sevenths these 
chords are generally introduced with greater care, the seventh, especially when major, requir- 
ing preparation or entry stepwise from above. While the modern tendency is toward an in- 
creasing freedom in the use of all dissonances the student should prepare and resolve every 
dissonance that needs it. 

When the student's technic in the handling of dissonant sevenths is established along con- 
servative lines it will be well for him to study the possibilities under a broad general rule 
like the one laid down by Frank E. Ward (Columbia University) as follows: "The seventh or 
the root must be prepared in every instance,although many of the preparations are by substi- 
tution. In advanced work 1 am guided more by my own musical experience and a decided 
taste for the rich dissonances of modern music than by what is set down in text books." 
This is excellent doctrine for every earnest student. Let him prepare all secondary disso- 
nances at first directly if possible, later by substitution where the effect is not too harsh and 
the passage gains by it, and still later judge every dissonance on its own merits and use it as 
it best serves a musical purpose. 



The Cadencing Progression of all Chords of the Seventh 

47. The first step toward an understanding of all the seventh chords is to construct se- 
quences of the sevenths based on the cadencing resolution of the dominant seventh chord to its 
tonic. In such sequences every seventh chord will be led to the triad (or seventh chord) situ- 
ated a fifth lower (fourth higher) just as V 7 resolves to I. The seventh of every secondary 
seventh chord will be prepared and resolve stepwise downward. 

Play Ex.41 (a),'b),(c), etc., in many other keys 

rK ' ' ' ' ' II VT n 

<b> N (c) In minor 



Ex.41 




*- 



-*v 



LJ 



-*>- 



:EL: 



o o .1 



-o- 



o o 



"o 



-o- 



"**"**"" 



" o 



o o 



-*- 



v 7 1 rv 7 viMipvi IF v 

(e) 



I V 7 I 7 7 7 7 



-- 



-t- 



nCT 



Har. sc. Orig. sc. 



Har. sc. 



*> 



IMIIV 



t> 



V 7 



(f) 



(K) 




6 

i 





i 




I 



8 
f 



B 
! 



4 
3 



4 
.1 



48. Double function of the Leading Tone Seventh, in a sequence of cadencing. 
seventh chords the vu 3 , loses its character, as fncompletc V* progressing to the tonic, and re- 
solves like the other seventh chords. See Ex. 41, N.B. 

On account of the sequence the IV 7 to vir is tolerated, though in itself a poor progression. 

49. Cadencing chords of the seventh In fundamental position omit the fifth in alternate chords. 
The third of one chord prepares the seventh of the next. Ex. 41 (b) In minor keys the original 
form of the scale is used except where the leading tone is needed, as in the Cadence. See again f 31. 

Sequences using inversions ft) (ei 'flfg) also consist of the cadencing resolution, that is the 
roots bear the same relationship u in (aj(b) and (c). 



1I338* 



52 



The cadencing resolution of all Chords of the Seventh 



**'* 3 7,7 77 '*> 3 3 7, 3, 7 


3 


7 37 


1* 




^Q 










SEE 
























W*'^ 


1 


r 


rj 




^M 




I' I 





/5 


_J 


















_j^ 4 


7 CS 


2 






PJ 




J \ 


v i 


r ^ 


rJ .^ 






















ff 


\ r^ 




- 




^ 




1 




r. 




/V 


*~ 






1 t^ 1 -^ 



*' D - 8 2 6 2 6 2 i 2, 6 **'' 3 5 5, 5. i 


^1 , 




JQ 










II ft ^* ' ^^~ 










i 


^ 




i 01 








II W* 




_^^ ^^ 


-.3 




v^ * 


v A % 






s 


p w 


(^ .- 




{ ^ 1 ^^ 


IT 


K 


iTj & 


A a 



5,5 5 5 7, ^>'. 8 2 6, 2, 6, 2, 6 2 6 


b\* 
















J* "\* 




















/' 


















M* M. 


1 


















J 


i -, 


A 












rj 


z I 




p ^ 


w xj 


2 






H 1 







6 (3 6 6 

2525 2525, 2, 677 



^ .> ^ i> a a s I . I i . a z 



6 4444 

325 7 7 3 7 |3 73^ 7 



I *-* 

^ 



F 



-*- 



380. 



6 6 



l | 



66 7 . ' 7 7 7, 7 7, 7 



"^fr 



381. 



r if r 



525 



4 
3 



IT r ir "rir 



7 



r IP 






r 



66 6 

2 5, 2 5 2526 



4 44 44 46 

737, 3, 7 3 7 3737 3 5 



'i "i , 



383. 




384. 

-^ 


6 7 

!. ,f f if. 


7 r 7 

r r 




6 

p f 5 
1 




J 7 

A 


7 7 

H^ 


6 

^ A 


5 


l] ! rl 


i 




6 

r-T^ 




-" i 


.S ]p 


-r 1 ^ E 


=H= 








=p 





^N 




r r 






j j 




-^-i 



385, 



Add alto and tenor 



TlM 


r> 


^ 




^~r 1 


j 


T 3 ' 


p ' 


"P J 1 


~*~F~ 


i 


rP 


U 1 


^_ 


p p 


-m- 




B 










aSE 








rr* 


6 


3 

-e 


4= 

6 
4 3 


4 
2 


-^4= 

^M 


6 

^ 


4 
3 
2 


6 

E= 




-4= 
r 7 P 


4=1 

7 


' 





7 


8 


7 

r 




"*^ 


' 




z 











1 










= 


i ' 1 




J 




-S 


=j= 




* H 



53 



Ex. 



Significance of the Cadeneing Resolution 

50. Before examining other aspects of-the secondary seventh chords it will be profitable to read 
again $34 and study more closely the significance of the cadencing progression of chords. 
Mr. Benjamin Cutter in his "Harmonic Analysis" says: "The succession in, vi,u,V, with or with- 
out sevenths, and in whatever form, is one which confirms the ultimate tonic; it is one in which -the 
total impression is that of pushing on to the close in that final tonic harmony which rounds out the 
whole." Now the roots of these chords are the successive fifths reckoned upward from the keynote, 
and the chord farthest removed .tonally from its ultimate tonic is the one built on the most distant 
fifth in the series, namely the in"). The cadencing resolution is therefore a progression downward 
toward the tonic by stages of fifths. Thus the resolution of V' 7) is direct. Between 11 '> and I is the 
V* 7> . Between vi'3 and I are both the u (7) and V">; while iu'', farthest removed and least used, must 
touch three intervening chords on Its way (cadencing) to the ultimate tonic. This will be made 
deafer, perhaps, by the following table. 

Table of Secondary Seventh Chords 
in their Relation to the Ultimate Tonic Triad 



I 1 remove. 



Chart " A* 

f\ <Ji> 'i^ remove. 1*J remove Ultimate Tonic. 




ii 


n 


53E 






7jL d Ml. . Kubmd. 




u 









-TO 














J Ii<] 5th o Supertonic 
(2''DotnJ 


III' 


VI' 
(VI") 

(I 7 ) 


IP 
(II) 
t IV 7 ) 


VII 










" 1 V / 






/* Tnnij- 












J o ' 




















\T9 




Practical 

i> n 


application. 



. 



t r 


1 . 

o 


V* 

v 

4 y 


I 

o 


(g> o 

IF 

-* 





o 

^z 

Progress to 
O 


** 

ward the Ultitn 


"P 

ate Tonic. 


O 





-^ 




M, 


4V 










Ml 


tl 


/ 









, , , 






S CT 












o 



VI 7 



I 



51. The tendency of l\' 7 to progress to V and of 1 7 to progress to n inclines one strongly to the 
view, so well set forth by Percy Goetchius, that these two chords are incomplete u and vi respect- 
ively just as the vuj progressing to 1 is an incomplete V (t^l). 



The cadencing resolution, though the most important, is but one of several progressions 
possible to secondary seventh chords; for, provided the general rules of good voice leading are ob- 
served, any of these chords may progress to any triad or seventh chord whose root, third or fifth 
is a proper resolution of the seventh (f57). 

Conservative General Rules for the Seventh of 
All Secondary Seventh Chords 

53. Introduction of the seventh: the seventh must be prepared, or passing (stepwine 
downward), or if a minor seventh, may enter by an upward leap from some other note of the same 
chord. The swenth of the supertonic seventh chord is prepared sufficiently by substitution, that 
is by being present in any voice in the preceding chord. This is because this chord (often called 
the Second Dominant) can be treated relatively almost like a V : chord. 

54. Resolution: stepwise downward, passive (in which case the tone of resolution must 
not be doubled', stepwise upward if major, or the bass t;ikr* the note of resolution. 

A strict adherence to these few general rules will greatly conduce to smoothness in the harmo- 
nic structure. The advanced student i^ n-firred to f v> 



A.PS11S3H* 



54 



The Supertonic Seventh Chord 

55. The most important secondary seventh is that on the supertonic. It is almost as valuable as 
the dominant seventh and is introduced with nearly the same freedom. The fundamental position may 
omit the fifth, the inversions should be complete. The finest form of this chord is the first inversion 
(Rameau's "Chord of the Added Sixth"). All inversions are possible, but the second inversion is rather 
weak in the major key. The chord is treated the same in both major and minor. 



Ex.43 




p"^ 


', O-/ 




fj 






m; 




^~ 


ve; 

IP" 7 




_ m k 5 


VI 


; 

- 





- 


W J 

g -6 &i 


3 


&--- 






|* r ' 8 




|3 


5C 




JZEZ3 








E3 


5 





E 


J2_^ 




-^ 


^-^~ 


< 
-^ 


7 


7 


& s 


O O 
7V~ T* 




s> 




1 f 






*f . r. ' 


fl 2 




- 


~ 

















^l, ' 


- 




> 1 




1 

1 ' H 






-1 1 




L-, 1 1 


H 

'y i H 




5 


n 



5 


Bad 

| 


5 
(k) Ba | i (1) Bad 


~^ 

(m) 


1 1 . 


Jf tt *t jj 




-1 


-4- 


-p j 


L J 





\ 


^7"; 


=4= 




g 4 


*-* 7j 


~3 5 ? 


\ffj 




^3 


-^ 


9 


v" V | 




2 


~^ 




\ 


1$ 


~w S 






e 




* 


y 


JBL 


|< 


ft. . 


- 


a 
g 


Passive res. 
dbld. 1 

1 


7 th not res. 


cov. oct. 

^~~n 


* o 


^ 






IP 

5 


^ 






55 


15 
4 




^ ' 




E /Til 

7 




'e 

5 


~rr~ 

5 


^ 


8 8 



(a) Complete n', (b) incomplete (the seventh here also explainable as a suspension). 

(c) Passing seventh. 

(d) (e) (f) Preparation by substitution. 

(h) (i) Fine use of the first inversion in cadences. 
(j) (k) (l) Some of the commonest errors. 

(m) The passive resolution, except to a I|, is usually followed by another form of the 
chord, the voices moving stepwise. 



same 



Supertonic Ninth 



56. The Supertonic Ninth is recognized by some theojists and composers. For examples 
see below, Ex. 44 (a) (b) Others will call this ninth a suspension resolved when the V 7 is reached. 
But still others will deny the existence of a dominant ninth, claiming it is always a suspension. 
The student must in any case prepare and resolve the ninth in nfl since it is dissonant. A few fig- 
ured basses containing this supertonic ninth will be found, the first ones, Nos. 406-7. 



(a) 



Ex.44 
386. 


, jg ^ I 




2 -r? 




r 


r 


1-| 


1 d 






ii 1^ J j i 




PE 


ram juuii. 
1 


" " 




j| 






^ 


< 


5* 


-o- 


s 

p 


" 


TT-I L 
*l'i ? ra = 


- 

6 

^ 


= 

4 
3 


fiP 

9 

T 7 


i i p U I 1 1 1 


.^* o 

1 & 

8 

*" (5 


11 


* 1 \" \ 1 1 I f~ txs 1 -^ I? 1 ii j r [ ^ - 

6 1 
11^ 5 

The Supertonic Seventh and Supertonic Ninth 

7 7 387. 4- 7 

Ep "--i ni:,. f i -<9 = 


1 ^ ^- m <^- aa 
7 

6 
4 7 


388. 

~tH 




3 

75 


ft 





< 




Par. 49) 


1 
2 


u 

6 7 


-\ 

7 


- 
- 


Z t| 





1 M r 

389. 3 % 6~5~ 




6 
587 

, HI 








' 




L 




~S 


_ el 




- 


1 '.. 0* II 


,-/ Cp u Q 


&' ^ 



390. 



3 6 



6 7 4, 7, 



391. 



6 6 5, 



1 

5 



V"L9 -3- 


-W--J- V^r ffi fi> J ^ 


^- 


" 4- 9 3 & 

Mi' 38H OQO 8 887 
<f! * 4 - n 6 6 8 5 8 7 , 5 -8- , 5 4 M 








V L' ; IB 


JT * fli \ G5 \{ J ! 




-^ p *K ' 


^ *K -^ fij ^ 




394. 8 l| 


1 jj 

1 > M 

11) i 8 
ft 2 fl 3 i 8 5 




d * ' ^ 






*F* 1 * A J 


** u A ,J p E 




{? J !' ^*- 


-t * 




395. 3 8 


t I 
36. n 




61* Q 


I " JH '"^ ^r\ 




f * o 


I ^ I J*~ p r^ r v r v * 




-^ f> A 


n fffl *F r^ 




" * U , 


- ^V' 




IP* 

397. 

i 


V * 

v ~ 39S - n 

i ^ v * 7 ^ G ' i 




Jr 


t B jr I 7. . 




/i. I 1*1 /o 


I U K- b i * A - IP A 




fm ' t5 rJ p r 


/ ', x> fln ? _ ff 





399. 



Unfigured. Cadence each line with n-V-I or n^-IJI V (S7> I 



400. 






401. 



402. 



* 






r r ' 



r 



- 



403. 



404. 






y l/s jf-irr 7 

''> 



40o. 



^^ 



40G. 



fo 


3!i 




P 


3 


f=^ 


-P 

I 


-* ^ 


W-i- 


B 




-i~ 


^F 


Ti 




, 


^E 


Q 









U 

7 


2 


I 

8 
845 


4 

3 


U 
8 4 


7. 


i 




I 


4 
3 
X 8 









8 7 
i 








A I 






I 






P 






I 














/' 




* I 







_J 




J y 


I 


^ 


















z 









! 


<j 




J 





J 







^ 






Xi 


a 





407. 



/a> tt i._u c g 


> 


-p-i 


< 


fn 




T | 


I ^*~l 





^ ytrr -=- =p 






5 T * 

7 


> 




H 


J J 




-^-r-r-H pi m p 




5 6 











7 J 


7 5 




7 !> IN r J* i J -p 




^= 


r P 




L 


^^=^ 


^=^ 


U J T ' 



. 11338* 



56 



Ex.45 



Various Resolutions of the Secondary Sevenths 

57. The-general principles regarding resolution of the seventh (ft 52) may now be concisely 
stated as follows (under three heads): 

A. The seventh resolves downward, one degree to the root, third, fifth, or (rarely) sev- 
enth, of the succeeding chord. This is the true (active) resolution of a genuine seventh, whether 
prepared, passing, or taken by a leap. 

B. The seventh remains Stationary (passive resolution) becoming the root, third, or 
fifth of the succeeding chord. This is frequently a rriere delay of the downward resolution; but 
when the seventh has become passive, by becoming a root, third, or fifth, it ceases to demand 
resolution. 

C. The seventh IS led Upward one degree it the bass drops a third to the note of re- 
solution (resolution by substitution), otherwise bad covered octaves would result, see Ex.32(g). 

The major seventh may ascend whenever it functions as a retardation. It is not then 
a true seventh, nor can its progression be called "resolution of a seventh", but lists of second- 
ary sevenths usually include it. 



(a) 



(a) 



fl va> v* 1 ' iu; t.c; \.c> ^ c* ^. 


JF ' x 


^ ^ 








Q o 


B>-{ 


A- t^ ' 


_ _ _ 







^ ^ 




*^> 


fm 5 OO 




D 


j| *> 




84> 




SB }! r^ 


' ' t rf k^-' 


} J If 






If 




T7 VI 1 ' 


I 7 VI 






^t4~ ^t^^ 




ei '"^ 


EXE 






















--^ 






s 




j % 


^ j 


o ^* 


o * 


















7 6 7 7 777 7 4 7 
5 5 5 5525 



D 


( 


e) 




- -~. 


( ^-^ (R) 


x (h) (h) 




(1) 


1 i_LU=J (1) 




I 1 () i 




/ if 


^ - 






8t> 


i 


{<> 








x-^. 


-J 


s 








1 


^ft_ 


' , 






If 


1 


tj 







_ 


- - 


J W 






rj 




n n/d 


(TJ 


\^^\ 


' , 


H % 


o 


_i 


*i 


i-i J5 


O ** ^ 


r-j 






t 


| H H 


ft 


VNL/ 


* 








"% * * 






^ P 


5 








W ' W 


~\ 










^8 




S- f 

* 


F 






-^ TS- 


o 


!X* 




























JQ 


l> 1 1 




M+ 






i 


i *' 










*-* 






52 
' 




3J 






_^r 


















[% 










































7 

( 


8 


7 7 
4 

(k) i Aug 


| 7 7 

24 (1) .. 

yt i% -~rs~ 


7 


7 8 

(m) 
8 ^ 


7 8 


7lj 8 7 [| 

1 - (n) J J 
it 


6 
5 

Q 






f 


Orig. min.s 




-e- 

cale 
- OO 


1 
Bad 


-**- 

OO 


$> 8 


u 
-o 

-5> _. 


- 


etc. 


~ 


^ . 


1 1 

? 


43-"- 

o 

** 




J 




tt 






CIS -^ 




2 






J 


:- 


2 


7 6 


4 2 
3 


7 6 jysr 


V 



Ex.45, (a) Downward resolution to a root, (b) to a third, (c) to a fifth, (d) to a seventh. This 
last of limited application. 

(e) Stationary seventh becoming a root, (f) becoming a third (g) becoming a fifth (of a 
seventh chord, not of a triad) unusual, not fine. 

(h) Ascending seventh because the bass takes the note of resolution, (i) because the major 
^seventh assumes the role of retardation, not a true seventh though so figured. 

(j) Passing seventh in minor must be seven in original minor scale, (k) bad on ac- 
count of the augmented second (except .for special effect in instrumental writing), (1) passing 
sevenths, (m) successive roots a third apart, (n) seventh highest in IV87-V, double the fifth in 
V to escape doubling the leading -tone. 



57 



408. 







87 



IP 



Various Resolutions of the Seventh 
7 409. 



j ' 



8 7 



=z 



n 



87 87 77 



410. 






78 2 a, 7 8 



7 , 4 



* * i 

ES^E^ 

IP ^ 



P 



-*- 



6 



i 



412. 



*v 







rr w if 



->- 



y ^ 



413. 



87 7, 6 



If 



I 7 1 7 






.. 



414. 



8 



m^T 



7 .;. 



rtFMJrUM 



415. 



78 

F=] U'-O 

1 I I I 
i 







P 



, 8 7 87 



41G. R 



Jt a 



_7 _ _ *: 



:> 7 

7 S 



i i .. i 



: 



7 4 



' 41 IS. 



5 H 



7 f 



? 8 





4 
_6. S 



I 



- 



, " 7 4 \ 419. 



85 



^^s 



78 5 - 



^ 



**=f 



^ 



-*v 



420. 8 , 1, 



II i] 8 7 87 



7 fl 
-ft- n 



87 



87 



/1*J1 ^ B 

^ 41 - 3, 6 76 72 ft B 



R 7 4 7 
==P^ 



'I / f) / * "l r if / 

J r ir r T r if r 'r Mr r ' 



422. 



5 75 



a 



766 7 8 8 7 



423. 



"57 . 7 8 7, 7 7, 1 7 



u jin i.. 







424. s 



fl 
7 S 



4 4 

3 2 



76 44 

5 .IX 



y >i r rV i " i " i 



7 fl 
5 

** 



4 4 

.1 X 

** 



7 B 
5 



44 

a 2 



Ji. ? 



^ 



425. 



5 7, 5 



g 

.-., 



v * 6 6, 7 



r M J i ir n 



58 



426 


r 




5 


7 7 

rr? 




8 
5 7 




H^ 


7 


7 

It 




^h 


8 7 

y 


427. 3 
" l^jU " 


8 7 


5 
5 7 


6 




6 


-- 


* 




*j | 


4= 






^1 




"rt 




-J 


rJ 




II V ff Ip 







-* 







BE^ 



t, 7 




-o- 



D 
<^ 



^ 



Fl 



T~ 



-rr 



-o- 



F 



F 



-O- 



Freer use of the Seventh 

58. Credit is due to Mr. Frank E.Ward for the following interesting example of a freer 
use of the seventh. It will repay careful analysis. While it may be contended that some of the 
sevenths are merely passing tonesj and certain apparent seventh chords the result of passing tones; 
it may be answered that passing sevenths are passing tones, and that more than one analysis is 
possible for many combinations of tones. The distinction between prepared sevenths and sus- 
pensions is also difficult to define since the same progressions may seem different in different 
surroundings. It should be noted that the entry of a major seventh is softened if the seventh 
and fifth are in outer parts, or at least fairly prominent. The free entry of the major sev- 
enth by an upward leap is smoothest when it is really a passing seventhly substitution" as in 
the seventh measure of, the illustration. In all cases much depends upon the disposition of the parts. 



Ex.46 



IP 


^~T 


& 1 



a 3 




-0 


^k7 ? 




-e 


M 




-a e 


1 r 


^ 


9J 

-& G 




f f 

* 


O 


^ "0" 


* 77 


1 f 2 




t 






sz 




e- | 











|5 




^3 ^ 


j r 


- 



























CI m* vi? I 



IV n* 



V 7 



A I'll 






i i 1 i i 


| 


Sf 1 


i ^LJ 


a 














\ 


O 




_J 


i 


w^ ^-* ^"1 


rH_ 1 


^^ r^ 




2 


"^ 








n 






^J b 


**&*-, 


f J^\ (^j 


^rj fyA 


fjt. 




Qj 


>r 




^j r* 




a a 


f^ 


1 


^1 V 


V 


VSi^ ^^ ^2 








^^ 


'^ 




rj r* 




3 2? 


JJ 


J5 tf 


^ 


* v 


f* a 


~*^ 




1 


1*" ('^ 


.*- 


4V ^ 


j I 


r 




*^J 


**, 








JJ 


rj 


I' ' 










~J 




V 










J 




1 








r 


rJ 


1 1 






























IV 6 IV 2 vns IV* vnj n| V 7 

5 


IS IV viig P I I dll | V 7 vii| 

5 



A 




J 


Frank E.Ward. 




u^ 


































f^* ^^ 


[is 




^i 




^. 


f^J 


gig* 






















\^5 ^ 


3 










? & h. 


f 


g| 




^ 


f~f 




g 


^ 


















&- 

& 


-& 

^2 


* -n 


9 







it - 


V 




7^ 
-73 




t= 


f ^ 


j 


" r 


TT 






i" Cn* 




V 


V 


III, 

3\> 


P 


Ig 


] 


rv 7 A 


ais 

5 


III 7 VI 


n 7 ii 7 i 


VJ VJ 



I 



429. 



Exercises requiring a freer use of the Seventh 



|jH 1 
























2 


^= 


6 
5 


4 
3 


3 J 

4 

7 3 

r f^ 


7 


5 




HS 


' 
7 




O 


L 1 1 


\ 










^ 


1 


-" 






1 5 H 



.11338* 







Ravel. 



Ex.47 



Huchaldu. MO-A.IO A.D 




THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC 



HELPFUL BOOKS FOR EVERY STUDENT 



THE STUDENT'S SHORT COURSE IN MUSICAL FORMS 

by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

A fundamental course which affords the student a knowledge of the 
construction of musical sentences, binary, ternary, rondo, sonata and 
fugue forms, with brief description of the overture, concerto, sympho- 
ny, oratorio, opera, as well as various dance forms. The illustrations 
given in the volume are from standard classical works. 



JUST ISSUED - 

A SHORT OUTLINE OF MUSIC HISTORY 



(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 426) 



Price $1.00 net 



From Ancient Times to the Present Day 
by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

A brief account of the growth of music up to the present time. 
Includes discussion of early sacred and secular music, the rise 
of opera and oratorio, leading composers of the Classical and 
Romantic Schools, also a list of modern composers, with refer- 
ence to their principal works. A chapter devoted to the develop- 
ment of the pianoforte and instruments of the orchestra is of 
especial value. Price $1.25 net 



LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY HARMONY by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

Designed to prevent many of the faults usually found in a student's early exercises. Both soprano and bass parts are given, thus 
regulating somewhat the movement of the alto and tenor parts, which can be written in the ibook itself, thus avoiding the use of manu- 
script paper. (Schmidt's Educational Series No. 412) Price $1.00 net 



STANDARD BOOKS ON 

CUMBERLAND, GLADYS Net 

A Short Primer in the Elements of Music. One hundred 
questions and answers, and a set of six "test papers." 
A valuable handbook for individual or class use $ .40 

EMERY, STEPHEN A. 

Elements of Harmony. Unexcelled for practical pur- 
poses wherever harmony is taught. Both melodies and 

basses are given for harmonization. 1.25 

Key to "Elements of Harmony" 1.00 

Supplementary Exercises to "Elements of Harmony" ... .75 

FOOTE, AKTKUR 

Modulation and Related Harmonic Questions. A thorough 
survey of all that pertains to modulation. A book that 
every student and young composer should study .... 1.25 

FOOTE AND SPALDING 

Modern Harmony in its Theory and Practice. Unique in 
its masterly handling of the entire subject from the first 

lessons to really advanced work 1.50 

Key to 501 Exercises in "Modern Harmony" 1.50 

HEACOX, ARTHUR E. I Book I 1.25 

Keyboard Training in Harmony. ( Book II 1.25 

This method of teaching harmony makes the subject 
more interesting and enjoyable to many pupils than the 
usual written exercises. 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 181a~b) 

HILL, ALFRED 

Harmony and Melody. "Instead of every composer hav- 
ing to rediscover all the ways of writing, it is proposed 
to systematize the material so that anyone with average 
talent can use it. The idea is to teach students to love 
and understand music by making music; just as one 
learns drawing by drawing and not "by reading about it 
in a book." 1.50 



THEORY AND HARMONY 

SPALDING, WALTER R. 

Tonal Counterpoint. The principles of free part-writing 

and their practical application. $2.00 

TAPPER, THOMAS 

First Year Musical Theory. A simple, readable text upon 
all the matter that is generally included in Rudiments 
of music. Test questions and written assignments accom- 
pany each chapter 1.00 

First Year Melody Writing. Presents the first principles 
of melodic invention, and may precede or accompany the 
study of harmony. Familiarizes the student with music 
notation and the elements of musical form, and simplifies 

sight reading 1.00 

First Year Harmony. (Revised and Augmented Edition.) 
Beginning with intervals and advancing >to secondary 
sevenths, with a chapter on suspensions and passing 
tones. Melodies and figured basses are given for har- 
monizing 1.25 

Second Year Harmony. A continuation of the subject aa 
presented in "First Year Harmony." (Augmented Edition) . . L25 
Key to First Year Harmony. With additional exercises. 1.00 
First Year Counterpoint. Includes the five orders of 
counterpoint in two and three parts, analysis, written 

work and test questions 1.26 

First Year Analysis (Musical Form). Following intro- 
ductory chapters on the elements of form (Motive, 
Phrase, Period) the smaller forms are taken up for de- 
tailed analysis. (Revised and Augmented Edition) 1.25 

Musical Form and Analysis. Containing the numbers re- 
quired for analysis in the preceding book 1.00 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 12S) 



STANDARD BOOKS ON HISTORY AND APPRECIATION 



JOHNS, CLAYTON N.t 

Do yon Know That ? Valuable hints, observations, 
thoughts and facts about music $ .60 

MacDOWELL, EDWARD 

Critical and Historical Essays. America's great composer 
has furnished one of the outstanding books on the his- 
tory and development of the art of music. It contains 
twenty-one chapters in which Mr. MacDowell outlines 
somewhat the technical side of music, and gives a gen- 
eral idea of the history and aesthetics of the art 2.50 

SPALDING, WALTER R. 

Music: An Art and a Language. Presents a working 
knowledge of the structure and modes of presentation of 
standard works in music, and is written primarily with 
a view to training listeners 2.50 



TAPPER, THOMAS N* 

First Year Music History. The narrative, though direct 
and concise, nevertheless includes enough detail to ren- 
der the story human and interesting, and to indicate the 
natural relationship of persons, causes and events. Ques- 
tions at the end of each chapter outline the principal 
topics discussed 1.75 

From Palestrina to Grieg. (First Year Music Biography). 
Each chapter is concerned with a single composer, and 
has at the end a synopsis and review questions which 
serve to emphasize the main points and test the stu- 
dent's knowledge. The book may be used for class work, 
for reference purposes, or may be read for general in- 
struction and enjoyment. 1.75 



SIGHT READING 

FAELTEN, REINHOLD t 

One Hundred Ear Training Exercises in Progressive 

Order. Deals with rhythm, pitch, intervals, chords, etc. . $ .50 
HARRIS, CUTHBERT 

First Steps in Ear Training. An easy and practical 
method of ear training up to a stage sufficiently advanced 
to meet the needs of the average music student. A 
knowledge of the rudiments of music up to key signa- 
tures and time signatures is all that is needed to precede 

the course 75 

(Sekimdt't Educational Series No. 859) 



AND EAR TRAINING 

MAXWELL, DOROTHY 

Sight Reading. A first sight reading book for students 
of any age, designed to teach the student to think before 
touching the keys, and to hear mentally before produc- 
ing the musical sounds 75 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. SS7) 
TAPPER, THOMAS 

Sight Reading and Memory Lessons. Exercises and pieces 
accompanied by analysis and suggestions for correct 

procedure in reading at sight and memorizing 1.00 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. IS) 



SOME PRACTICAL THINGS IN PIANO PLAYING by ARTHUR FOOTE 

A practical handbook giving musical precepts and principles of artistic playing. Discusses the mechanism of the piano, relaxation, 
touch, pedalling, voice leading, etc., and contains numerous illustrations as well as practical exercises. Price 60 cents net 

THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO. 

BOSTON 120 Boylston Street NEW YORK 8 W. 40th Street 



KEYBOARD 
TRAINING 



IN 

HARMONY 

725 

Exercises Graded and Designed to Lead from the Easiest 
First Year Key-Board Harmony Up to the Difficult Sight- 
Playing Tests Set for Advanced Students, 

By 

ARTHUR E. HEACOX 

Professor of Theory, Oberlin Conservatory of Music. 
Author of " Lessons in Harmony," " Ear Training," "Choral Studies." 



PART L 



PART IL 



Price, each, $ 1. 25 net 



The ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT Co. 

BOSTON NEW YORK 

120 Boylston St. 8 West 40th St 

Copyright 1917. by Tin ArOmr P. SekmUt Cfc. 

Inimattcmal CajyngtU itam*. 



Table of Contents 

(N. B. The numbers refer in every instance to the paragraphs) 

PART I 

Chap. I, Triads Page 4 

The Primary triads in Fundamental Position, to harmonize a bass, i- To harmonize a soprano,*- The soprano 
leaps, 3. Change of chord, 4, Bass repeats, 5- Rule for no common tone, 6- Cadences, 7_ Rale for common 
tone, 8- Harmonizing first six tones of scale, 9- Tendency of scale steps, io_ Review primary triads, 11- First 
inversion, 12- Successive Chords of the Sixth, 13- Second inversion, 14- Secondary triads in major, 16- Thirds 
of sec. triads, doubling, 16- Rule for n-V, 17- Rule for n-I|, 18- Secondary triads in minor, 18- Acgmented in- 
terval, Special rules for minor key, 20- Inversions of secondary triads, 21- Triad on Leading Tone,22- Permit- 
fed Consecutive Fifths, 23- Three successive chords of the sixth, 24- Doubled third in successive chords of the 
sixth, 25- Similar motion of all the voices, 26- The Sequence, 27- Sequence design, 28, 29, Sequence in mi - 
or, 30- Phrygian cadence, 81_ The figuring (5 e), 32- General review, 83- 

Chap. n. Chords of the Seventh Page 36 

Chords of seventh formed, 34. Dominant Seventh, 35- Triad (vu) not independent, 36- Introduction of Dom. 
7th, 37_ Resolution of Dom. 7th, 38- Inversion of Dom. 7th, 39- Licenses in resolution, 40- The Dom. 9th, 41- 
Table of all the primary dissonant chords, 42- Use of Dom. 9th, 43- Leading-Tone seventh, 44- Diminished sev- 
enth, 45- Secondary sevenths, 46- Cadencing progression, 47- Double function of Leading-Tone seventh, 48- 
Cadencing sevenths in. fundamental position, 49- Significance of the Cad. res., 50- Tendency of IV, 61- Other 
resolutions, 52- Introduction of sevenths, 53- Resolution, 64- Supertonic seventh, 55- Supertonic ninth, 56- 
Various resolutions, of the secondary sevenths, 67- Freer use of the sevenths, 58- Mastery of conservative 
usage, 59- 

PABTH 

Chap. III. Alterations Paged 

Alteration presented, 60- Rules for, 61- Application and exceptions, cross-relation, 62- Special alterations 
in major, 63- Dim. 7ths by alteration, 64- Augmented Sixth, 65- Aug. sixth chords in harmonizing a melody,66- 
Progressions compared, 67- Augmented sixth chords "not of the key", 68- No limit to resolution, 69- 

Chap. IV. Modulation Page 12 

Modulation by means of triads, 7O- Half and deceptive cadence, 71- Suggestions for harmonizing a choral, 72- 
The tendency chords of a key,73- Modulation through the Dom. 7th, 74- Removes in the key-circle, 76- Mod. 
by the Dom. 7th to next-related keys, 76- Modulatory inflection, 77- Reaching a new tonic, 78 - Passing 
from key to key, deceptive resolutions of the Dom. 7th, 79,80- Modulation by the Dim. 7th, 81- Modulation by 
the Aug. six- five chord, 82- Sequences, and use of any form of the Aug. sixth chords, 83- Modulation by the 
Dim. 7th on the raised fourth degree, 84_ Sequences byway of the dim. 7th on raised fourth, 85- Modulation by 
the Neapolitan chord, 86- Special intervals, enharmonic notation, pivot chords, (Ex.65). 

Chap. V. Non -harmonic Tones --- Page 28 

The Suspension, 87- The Preparation, 88- The Suspension itself, 89- The Resolution, 90- Passing-tone and 
embellishments, 91- Appoggiatura, 92- Anticipation, 93- Comparing the unornamented harmony, 94- 

Chap.VI. The French System of Figured Bass , Page 41 

Examinations by eminent Frenchmen, 95- Significance of special figures and signs, 96- 

Chap.VII. Examination Papers from Various Sources . Page 44 

(in this list the numbers refer to the exercises, not to pages) 

A fig. bass from Bachs "Thorough Bass" made "for his scholars", 642- Eight different basses on one choral, 
Kittel (Bach's last pupil), 648- American Guild of Organists, sight-playing examinations from 19O7 to 1916, 
644-677. Knox Conservatory of Music, 678-79- Cornell Conservatory of Music, 680-81- Oberlin Conservatory 
of Music, 682-86-. Harvard University, 687-90. Columbia University, 691-93. New England Conservatory of 
Music, 694-96. Royal Conservatory of Music, Moscow, Russia, 697-99. Trinity College of Music, London, 7OO- 
703- Royal College of Music, London, 704- 14- Oxford University, 715-16- Cambridge University, 717-18- 
Paris, The National Conservatory of Music, Chapuis, 719-21. Lavignac, 722. Gabriel Faure, 728-Gnflmant,7M- 
Vincent D'lndy, (The Schola Cantorum), 725-27, Facsimile of M. D'lndy's solution of No. 726, Page 62. 

A.V*. 11888* 



Keyboard Training in Harmony 



PART II 



ARTHUR E. HEACOX 



Chap. in. Alterations 

60. One or more tones of a chord may be chromatically altered without producing a modulation 
or essentially affecting its original relation to the key. The alteration may be introduced chromatically 
or diatonically, that Is the unaltered form of the chord may or may not precede the alteration. Fur- 
thermore all such alterations are essentially melodic and the tone combinations resulting therefrom 
should be considered ornamental variants of the original chord. In this sense only is it well to use 
the term "altered chord." Certain combinations containing the interval of the augmented sixth are 
usually termed Chords of the Augmented Sixth, another is popularly known as Neapolitan Sixth, 
another the Diminished Seventh on the Raised Fourth degree, and so on. These terms are conven- 
ient and are used in practically all the older treatises on harmony, but with the development of mod- 
ern harmony along chromatic and horizontal lines and the resulting broader conception of the char- 
acter of alteration in general these chords seem to have less claim to independence than was form- 
erly accorded them. While this change of view point does not essentially change the treatment of 
the altered notes it does simplify the subject of alteration in general. 

61. In playing alterations from a figured bass it is best to observe the following general rules 
although there are exceptions to them all. 

Rules for Alterations 

t. The alteration is never doubled. 

2. The note which Is to be altered is not doubled unless one of these progresses stepwise 
in the opposite direction. 

5. Raised notes continue to ascend, lowered notes, to descend. 
4. The alteration is made in one and the same voice. 

6. Chromatic alterations usually follow the chromatic scale* which always lowers the seventh 
degree and raises the fourth degree, while all others are raised in ascending and lowered In descend- 
ing. (A good rule but frequently ignored.) 



Ex.48 




JdJ: 



(b; 



' 



* 



-ft- 



-*- 



I' 







i 



s 



w g 



te. 



i: o 



-e- 



-e- 




(i) 



(j) 



CIV N V* 
C(k) (D 



= 



e 



e 



XE 



jg 



xc 



o 






e 



Poor 








v: 



Good 



J 



Bad crotB- relation 



62. Ex.48, A. The rules observed:- (a) Third lowered, introduction chromatic; (b) Fifth 
lowered, introduction diatonic; (c) The note that is to be altered, correctly doubled (rule X). 

B. Legitimate exceptions to the rules:- (d) Altered ton.- doubled in (so called) Nea- 
politan Sixth -exception to rule 1; (e) (f) (g) rule t broken, but poor only as indicated; (h) Raited 
note does not continue upward (rule 3); (i) (j) Altered note not kept in the same voice (rule 4). 

C. Cross -relation (or false -relation). This not avoided by an intervening chord as at (1); 
but aside from such open contradictions, which are obviously offensive, very little attention is now 
paid to cross -relation, especially in modulatory or chromatic passages. 



* Thu it mot the only form of chromatic scale in use. 
HMD 



1917 by The Arthur P. Hchll Oo. 
Wrurrd 



Exercises in Alterations (General) 



435. 



8 , 
3 31 



S 6- 






8 7 



436. 



, 437. 



5*- 



6 2 

6 6 ,,5 1 



E 



438. 



9 

7 67 

1 7 5 | 




m 



439. 



367 



-e- 

6 5 _ 



6 
4 7 



440. 



8 5sl , e-e-e 



-e- 



441. 



ii 



6 eb e 

3 39 4 7 



442 



ITU 



E 



443. 



'[/I. C*^ " 



<& 



-o- 



i 



-n~ 




45. 






6 
4 3 



o i p bp i r< /r 



8 7 



5 - 

^ 



6 

4 2 




Some Special Alteration in the Major keys 

63. In the major, H, m> and vi, may appear by alteration as major triads, or as apparent 
dominant seventh chords, taking most frequently but not necessarily, the cadencing resolu- 
tion (^50). (See also ft 77). The usual indication is n-, n', etc.; with inversions the* being 
placed in brackets to distinguish it from other figures (11! ). 

Other alterations frequent enough to justify special mention, are V in major with minor 
ninth (V 9 ''); the ii7 with lowered fifth (np; and the I 7 with lowered seventh (pt), which func- 



tions as a dominant seventh, (apparently in the subdominant key). 



Ex.49 




4U>S.11338t 



446. 



Some Special Alterations in Major keys. 

Supply the alto and tenor. Inversions as desired. 
All the tones are chord-tones. 





rj 


J_ r | 




2 


1 




~ J 






^ & 


p* r r =j 




j r 


F"^ 








P 






r 
* p 


















.A. 




H 


I 








5 
















i r i 




i j i j i 














\HJ 




1 M t/ 1 




E* 


, 


= 

1 


h^=d 




* 


-9 s p* 


a 


- ? f9- - 






f=) 


*#r) 1 5 








' 


B 7 




7^ "^ ? ? ~? 






O.S.D by per. 




Diminished Seventh Chords by Alteration, in Either Mode 

64. In addition to the regular Dim. 7th chord on the leading- tone (in both modes, f 45) 
Dim. 7th chords are freely used on the chromatically raised first, second, fourth, and (in maj. 
only) fifth degrees; and also on the major third. The resolutions usually resemble those of a 
regular VIIT but resolutions with a passive, or an ascending, seventh are frequent . The Dim. 
7th on the raised fourth is of special importance (f 84) resolving most often, with its root and 
seventh both ascending to a I|(d). At(e) note the same progression, in sound, but notated as 
on the raised second. 



Ex. 50 



6 



448 



The Diminished Seventh Chord (by Alteration) on Various Degrees 



/Lit. n i 


1 




f r 










r~p ! 


V -5 


[w C 1 












W? 1 ' 

Su 


pply 1 

=t= 


he alt, 


> and te 
frt' 


nor 

d- 


^^ 


4= 










f r 

i i bi 




' 


hJ 


^ i 


E 









* 




E =d?E 




is 


1 




4fJ i 






i 










i = 




1 ** H 



5 
* 



449. 3 d? n | 

t y (g ^ i J * 



6 4 



7 

6 

-3- 



5 4 



^ 






450. 



8 6 



7 
5 
7 6 -9- 



6 1 7t> 7 I| | 3 2 6 6 7J> 

|J J p |nJ r p | r J |J J |J-j-||J | r .-|j t i 



^ 



O. S. D. by per. 




Inversions as desired 



Alterations whidi pmdnce the Chords of the Augmented Sixth 

65. For purposes of comparison the Augmented Sixth in all the following examples is f-dl and al- 
ways between the bass and soprano. The possible arrangements are numerous. 



Ex.51 



/)<*> , <b> I .. 1 1 <o> | .. | (d) | .. | <e) | .. | 




33 M3 22 


mg t* 




Cf 110 


-^t "" *^ B*^ 

II fJW r^fc F *> tf^ 


[ & 5 _ ^ ] 


-T* V*^- n 


~ rs ff tto ^ 


-ins ^^ r 


* 
8^ - 


-Al 

* n 

n aft 


* 

o "* 


ft . 

* 
rt 


"-- ^qxr^ 

* 
rt - 


^_m 


it 


H 




el . . 


- M. *- 41 




43 tl 


' o 


1 11 


J 


'<* 


















vt ~ -e-e e-e-ee-e-^e-e-e 

A 1 1 K A 1 



At (*) Aug. 6*1* in the V 7 



I I At(*) the four forms of the regular Aug. 6th chords 



} 1 


tl 

g U j 


1 d 

| gj jjg) i=| 


J) J J ( 


D J J (. 


D 1 . 1 
rs %d B 


I 


^^ 


e 


ti ff o 


i tf o 





fc|; d fafr 


n 


- -0- 

-o * 


? "* 


^ S 


^ 


J ~ ~ 
~% ' 

4 


- -fr 

ti 


O 'TT O 

554 


e -e- e 

5 5 


tl 

-4 


6 -ft- 


3 








3 






(a) (b) Forms of V with raised fifth, not the so-called regular augmented sixth chords, although con- 
taining that interval. 

(c)(d>(e)(f) Respectively the Chords of the Augmented Sixth, Augmented Six- five, Aug- 
mented Six -four -three, and Doubly Augmented Fourth. N.B. in(c) the third above the bass is 
the tone to double; neither member of the aug.eth may be doubled, since these are both strong tendency tones. 

<g) (h) (i) (j) Other resolutions of two of these chords. 

Though the alterations have added a certain interest to these progressions, they need only be played 
without the alterations to show clearly that the chords unaltered may, and do, progress in the same way 
as before. 



Exercises in the Augmented Sixth Chords 

T 




463 



In the following exercises the augmented sixth sometimes becomes, by inversion, a dimin- 
fched third or tenth. The dim. tenth is the better, but the third is admissible. No new principle 
u involved- the altered tones follow their tendency. 454 




8 



The Augmented Sixth Chords in Harmonizing a Melody 

66. To use the augmented sixth chords in harmonizing a melody (or in modulation, ^83 ) it 
is necessary to be able to think their spelling and resolution accurately and readily. Here the 
support of figured bass is lacking and the problem demands mental concentration and more 
than ordinary care in leading the voices. 

Learn first to construct the augmented sixth chord whose bass is a major third be- 
low the keynote. This is the legitimate "chord of the key" having subdominant function 
(derived from IV or H.) and resolving to tonic, or dominant harmony. To build the chord at the 
piano proceed as follows: 

1. Strike the keynote) add the major third below it for the bass, to these two add the aug- 
mented sixth above the bass in any upper part. (These three notes are the same in all 

four forms). Then, for the fourth voice doable the third (above the bass) in a 6+> use an aug- 

6+ 6+ 04. 

mented fourth in 4+ a doubly augmented fourth in 4-H-> and a perfect fifth in 5 . This 

S 8 

process is illustrated in Ex. St. Resolve as indicated in the example. 



Ex. 52 



In C maj. or c min. The four forms of Angm. Sixth Chord Their regular resolution 
(The ang. ftth chord of the key) in the key 



Xk 


"B r 


o To o 


r 


\ 

t* Pnr /\th nart tisp 


^^ or or 


or 
(maj. only) 


- -^ ^| 


Key-note-jv 


fe 


A ~m 






a 11 


* 






-J 







The + means augmented Fig.8-4- + 



6+ 



8+ 



& 



maj. 12 c min.I? V 

! 

> - *5 2M 

I 



t 
- 

w> 

il 



u 

l 

a 



- 

s 



is 



6 j. 

,s| 



te-* 



Ex.53 



Application of the chords in major. Transpose to all other major keys 




Usual sign of the chorda: 



8 8 



g Application of the chords, in minor. Transpose to all minor keys 

\, i J J 




Some progressions better avoided 
(a) , i <b> _ _ I <c> <<U 



Some exceptional progressions permitted 




67. Ex. 53 C, (a) The bass In a weak six- four Is better led stepwise; (b) Consecutive 
fifths In reaching the chord, bad in outer voices; (c) Unnecessary cross- relation, - approach 
fl and ak chromatically; (d) Bad fifths in outer parts in resolving to V (now freely written with 
an inner part; (e) Beethoven, op. 57 (transposed), the true resolution to If is elided, the sus- 
pension improves the progression; ff) Fifth* now written freely; (g) Regular resolution, but 
by substitution, ujivocal but possible; (h) For instruments any altered tone may be taken by a 
leap of an augmented interval, smoother in an inner voice. 



The following simple sopranos invite regular use of the Augmented 
Sixth chords "of the key". There is no need of any bat the smoothest 
progressions 




8 + 



84-8 



!* 



+ 

ft 



^ 



P 



469. 



tt 



8 S 



^^ 



rr irrr irrr'r 1 nr J Mr ' 



6+ 



6 + 



r r ir r r T r J ' J> ' 



r FT ir "r irrr^ 



e-*- 



^ 



it* 

8 






^ 



^fe 



6+ 



^ 



m 




AMMMtl 




tfn " 


' A a m B" 




r 


a 


r 




J 




31 1 


\MJ 


4. w n 




w 




i 


s 


. ^ - 




1 


*T 
477. 

li 


6+ 1 
i 


6+ 
5 

1 1 


l 


1 w 


1* 


f V 
















*1_ U 


-^ |fc xr, ' 


ETX 


I 


in 




V 




\S) 


'' ^ r f 





rJ. m o 


r 


_pl Ij^ 




" 1 




4++ 



iff r r p r- j u.j j |J t> r i -M 



Use four augmented 6^ chords, any forms. 



68. It has been shown (\ 65) that the augmented sixth chords are, so to speak, a by- 
product of certain chromatic alterations. Once thoroughly familiar with the so-called augment- 
ed sixth chord of the key and its regular resolution to IJ or V, the student is ready to en- 
large his view of the use of the augmented sixth chords by constructing them with the bass 
note on other than the major third below the keynote. The altered tones, following their ten- 
dency, tend to resolve these chords as before to a six- four chord or a triad (major or minor), 
though not necessarily to a IJ or V. But when the chord of resolution is an accented six-four 
it tends strongly to assert itself as the tonic of some other key (inducing modulation, 1 83). 
In a passage not intending modulation but serving as a medium for voices progressing more or 
less chromatically, the use of the Augmented sixth on various degrees in the key is sometimes 
effective as perhaps in building up a climax. This use of the chords is illustrated in the follow- 
ing example where resolutions are found to vi, iu\, u\, etc. However, such a passage has little 
to recommend it. It serves as an illustration of possibilities but is too overloaded with one de- 
vice to be of much value. 



Ex.54 




It is not recommended that the student remain long at these rather difficult problems. The ad- 
vanced student might transpose Ex.54 to other keys and solve the following in the same general style. 



11 



479. 




480. 



666+ 




tt 



r 'rr J 'r 



- 



481. 







3 








69. Finally, there is no limit to the ways these augmented sixthchords may be resolved ex- 
cept that set by the taste of the composer. The interval of the augmented sixth itself, in addition 
to following its conventional tendency outward to the octave, may also be found in the works of 
the great composers progressing in all the ways shown at 55 (a). Here contrary, oblique and simi- 
lar motion may be found, and either part may leap. In 55 (b) note excerpts from the masters 
illustrating this variety of treatment. 















(b) 



Wanner 




482. 



The alto and tenor may be added to the following: 
(This may be omitted by the student who has not studied modulation, 



on account of the obvious inflection to related keys.) 




Chap. IV; Modulation 

Modulation by means of Triads 

TO. This means of modulation is best illustrated in the Choral where the melody leads simply 
and naturally to cadences in nearly related keys, thus providing an interesting variety in the har- 
monic setting. Keys so reached are usually points of but momentary repose. The succeeding 
line of the choral may resume the original key directly if desired. That is, such modulations as we 
are considering are more in the nature of mere inflections to one side or another of the principal key. 
In the following models from Bach's Chorals note the brackets which indicate how one may consider 
the two keys as in a sense overlapping. The triad which seems to belong to either key and thus 
falls within both brackets is sometimes termed a pivot-chord. In Ex.56 (e) a pivot-chord is 
lacking, but the modulation is quite satisfactory. Let the pupil solve this using a pivot-chord. 

In 66 (g) note the accented six-four and how strongly it declares itself a tonic chord (fl-14). 



Ex.56 





CN <f> 



I c min. 










rrr 
J^u 



r- 



mod. by 
thefchd. 



483. 



Harmonize the following choral lines simply and modulate in each 
one by means of triads. It is assumed that V 87 , n| , etc., will be used 

as desired. 

484. 485. 





J| nr'r'r' i" 



r'riTr 






487. 




488. 




From a to G also C to- G 



13 



489. 



J I'J II J I 






490. 



if 



491. 






^ 



From K to B!, then to F, then back to g. 



492. 









493. 



494. 



cf. Ex. 10 A 



J 



i r 



HP P T ~ 

y * d 



49?.. 






t> 









71. If to the Phrygian cadence (see again f 3l) is now added the half cadence, usually 
I-V, IV-V, or ii-V-, and the deceptive cadence, usually V^-vij we shall have sufficient vocab- 
ulary to harmonize many chorals. Note the following cadences and transpose them to other keys. 



Half Cadence 



Ha)f Cadence 



Deceptive Cadence 



Ex.57 





V I 



IVI 




API. tlt8" 



14 



Suggestions for Harmonizing a Choral 

'. The following suggestions will be found in line with the best general usage. 

1. The triad at each hold is usually in fundamental position and has tonic function, i.e., jt 
can be figured as a tonic chord in the key of the choral, or as tonic in the related key to which the 
line may have led. 

2. Since the hold marks a point of repose more or less complete, a chord of the seventh is 
obviously inappropriate at this point and is very rare. 

3. If not tonic in function, the triad at the hold may appear as the V in a half cadence, Ex.57 
(a) (b); as the vi (really a tonic) in the deceptive cadence (c); or as the final major triad in the 
Phrygian cadence (fl'Sl)- The V in the half cadence may be reached through the 11 or IV as well as 
through the I, but is less usual. The last two chords of a line may be I-IV, but this again is a 
cadencing formula explainable as V-I in the subdom. key. 

4. In .general do not introduce a chord on a weak beat and carry it over to the succeeding 
strong beat, unless beginning a line. Compare 57 (d) 1 and 2, and (e) 1 and 2. There may be 
occassional valid exceptions, but let the student find how many in one hundred lines of the 
Bach chorals. 

5. It is generally hi better taste to harmonize a repeated line in a different manner the 
second time, 57 (f). 

6. The parts may cross occasionally, but do not cross the soprano. 

7. Avoid many six-four cadences. Avoid many of any one form of cadence. 

In the following list the more difficult chorals are mostly placed toward the end. 
496. Ach Qott und Herr 




. .' . 

j r i rr rnrrr 



497. Christus der ist mein Leben 





,. 
I I I I I 

J Ji J J 



j. 



498. 



Errett mich, O mein lieber Herre 



j rr iJ j Ji r Jjji 



fdtt 




Es ist gewisslich an der Zeit 







r i r J j j u j r ij j j j ij J P j i r rr r | 



600. 




Freu dich sehr, O meine eele 




i 



v r r r 






J - J u j 



16 



801. 



Oott Act Hinmels and der Erden 




602. 



Oott dich loben allr wir 





B03. 



an Gottea Segi-n 








g04 Ermuntre dich, mein achwacher Geiat 



1 JIJJJJU 



I 1,1 

JJ|J 



605. 



Erqnicke mich, dn Heil der Sander 



'j 1 It I l r l,.JJJJl 



Oottes Sohn iit kommen 



too 



jj 






Herr, ick hab miagehandelt 



^ 



^^ 



irrrrirr J i 



' 



BOS. 

y~ r a Ach wie nichtig 



1 



J3_ 



&^$ 




' r r r r ir 



! 



' 



'r MI ijji 






S09 



HanHct tkvt mich verlangen 



A I'hry^i.tn melody 



16 



510. ich dank dir schon durch deinen Sohn 




Machs mit mir, Qott, nach deiner Gut 



jNl.j|JJJJ|JJ?J| f |||l r 



Heine Hoffnnng stehet feste 




513. 



Frohlieh soil mein Herxe springen 



m 







E 



a 



I . i I 

JJ 



. 

i rrr 



i 

J 



514. St. Ann's (With - f H as signature this is a true Lydian melody) 



&1 5 ', Dundee (Scotch Psalter) 





au J 



& *-e 






i 



1 



Ein feste Burg ist unser Qott 



1B46 



' 



r " r 



.r 



J 






r 'r 



rr 



517. 



J 



^ 



r ir r ir r 



4 \4 J |ZM 



Hannover 1648 



^W 



17 



518. 



ich> ^ nr 




pp 



519 



Der liensch hat nichU to eigen 



>-v 

ir rr JiJ. 



JJJ 



520. 



Verlieh on* Prieden gnadiglich 
-<O 



Aeolian melody IMO 












521. 



Von Oott will ich nicht lassen 



M7JUJJJM. I 



? 






Dorian melody, Not. !-- 



_^ 



m 



522. 



Singen wir aus Hercensgrund 

t ^^^_ 



A. 



Abont 14tO 



IJ J IJ J J IJ J 'l 



& "- 










1 



* 



Mit Ftied and Rrend ich fahr dahln 



j j r i r r j 



fV> lit* 



J?L 



JJr HJJjT nijjiij Ji 



524. 



A Myxolydian melody 

Komm, Oott Schopfer, heiliger Oeitt 



F r ij rr rirrr r irr r 1 11,111 in i|l|M| 



- Beethoven, Op. ia, Lydian (The d is lower than the old rale permitted.) 



"J I.J J 






18 



Modulation to a key through one of its Tendency- chords 

73. The tendency-chords of a key which resolve most emphatically to its tonic triad are 
(a) its Dom. 7th, (b) its Dim. 7th, (c) its Aug. Six-five, and (d) the Dim. 7th on its raised fourth 
degree. By means of anyone of these chords one may modulate from any key major or minor to 
any other key, major or minor; but some modulations are much smoother than others and some 
are too abrupt to be satisfactory, especially when made through the Dom. 7th. 

(a) Modulation through the Dom.7th of the nev key 



This modulation will be used first to next-related keys, i.e., to those whose signatures 
do not differ by more than one sharp or flat. The next-related keys to any given major key are 
its Dominant, Subdominant, and their three relative minors; and for any given minor its Dom- 
inant, Subdominant, and their three relative majors. The tonic triads of these keys can be 
formed from the scale of the given key, using the ascending major, and descending original 
minor, Ex. 58. 



Next-related keys to C major 



Next -related keys to a minor 



Ex.58 



* 



*EE* 



TT I t 



di ei FI GI ar 



*=t 



al GI FI ei di CI 



75. Keys whose signatures differ by but one sharp or flat are said to be one remove 
apart, the difference in the signatures expressing exactly the number of removes from one key 
to another. From C to D is therefore two removes, C to P| six removes, C to f (minor) four re- 
moves. The relation of all the keys maybe seen in the following chart. The arms will always 
inclose the next-related keys of any to which the arrow points. Brackets inclose enharmonic 
keys. 




76. Modulation from any key to its five next-related keys may be made by progressing from 
the old tonic to the new Dom. 7th. Common tones are best kept, the other voices going to the nearest 
chord-tones. On reaching the new tonic it should be established by adding a closing cadence. 

Modulation from C major to its five next-related keys: 

tb) (c) 



(a) I Modnlation 1 Icioiing cadence 



i 



t 







tt 



Ex.59 



\>& 



It 







M 



f 



CI GV I 6 IV IS y I d FV> ! c dence 



Cad 




(d> 

m 



(e) 



=E 







^ 




m 



tt 







(a) (b) Modulation through V*. In general modulation through an 

inversion of the Dom. 7th conduces to greater plasticity, and re. 

serves the Vft for the closing cadence. 

(c) Modulation by Vj, chromatic soprano. 

0) Begin with a I*, a fine road for this particular modulation. 

(e) No common tone, the third of the old tonic must be doubled to a- 

void an augmented second- (A rather abrupt modulation, made smooth- 

er by using a pivot chord, e.g., C I-vnV 

rv/' 



CI* dV* * ndC * d CI V 7 I and Cad. 

Modulate by the Dom. 7th from every major key to its five next-related keys 



Modulation from a minor to its five next related keys: 



Ex.60 



HSn $ ok~ 


~^ **~ 


j 




%n 


FJ J 




-H 


^= 


0j ^4? 


^h~ 


^ 3 ^ 


-** 


-* 

* 


-<v 






a -^> 

Con. Bth 




r r 




3= 




^= 


-3 






1 








permitted 


1 














-*JK 


_ 2 __ 


S 


r ; 


- 


~5> **~ 










Ip 




51 




u 


< 


aT V" ! and Cad. al 


i 1_| H-cJ 

d VJ I and Cad. a I 


CV{ I and Cad. 


al GVJ I< 


udCad. 


alF 


V} land Cad. 


Modulate by the Dom. 7th from every minor 


key to its five next-related keys 



B26. 



Exercises which Modulate by the Dominant Seventh Chord 

J I 527. 5 t I I 628. 8 I l\\ 

4 1 .. * B i__I i i i < 




AP 111IH' 



20 



Modulatory Inflections Through Apparent Dominant Sevenths 



. In the following exercises the apparent Dom.. 7th resolving to its apparent tonic, can 
not be said to produce other than a fleeting impression of modulation. Such progressions 
may be termed modulatory inflections. See fl 63 under which the following exercises could 
also be placed. 



536. 



aSiEg 



3 6 f 



7 
2 6 It 



Exercises Which Contain Modulatory Inflections 

537. , 6 e 



4 



-6- 
6 i 



P 



538. 



6 6 



R 

6 5. 



6 
4 3 



6 
4 



-e- 



o' 



4 
5 3 



-, ...... 

W J r r |J 




6 6 
4 7 



540. 



g^ 



^* 



541 



-6- 
4 






542 



5 h 543. 3 



8 T 



6 6 
645 



65* 
4-3-2, 



-6- 
4 

6 3 



6 
5 



6 
5 



6 
4 



7 

JL 



544. 



8 3 6 6 



* 



-e- 









^ 



6 
5 



66 

5. 4, 7, 



=r, 1t - -* 

7, _ O^O- 3 6 & ? 6, 5. 

i . r' : '0ffri j ii j r 



2 6 6 



78. Through some inversion of the V 7 (or fundamental position if necessary) reach a new 
tonic at each+ as in the following model. As has ajready been shown, it may be questioned 
whether these are modulations at all. In any case the impression of the successive (apparent) to- 
nics is fleeting. 



Ex.61 




aV* i GVf I CV 2 e FV| I dV| I CVg I 



21 



546. 



The bass is practically "unfiguredr Use inversions and supply 
the needed accidentals as needed. The model is Ex.61. 



-y^-t 


=4 


BEE 




51 




&_ 




* 


I~P 




B= f 9 (9 = 




647. i 




H 

^^ 









1 










It P B aU 


1 1 1 1 


548. 










J 










i 


+ 6 7 S \ 


-a 1 gl 

7 


4V V 






















@~ \ II 




fn H 




*^ I /v 


Mi 


r> I / 




/ 










1 \ \ <n 




Jr * 15 




H 


4 


- B 




-^ 






-" 


w 


L \* = 





549. 



I I .. I i.J |,.j I .. u j I .. I I I 



w I o 



79. In the following series pass from key to key through the Dom. 7th in the bamt- manner 
as above. Any key in the series can be established by adding a closing < a<U-nrr(f 76). 



550. G-e-a-C-a-e-G and Cadence. 



661. Bb - F - d - Bb- g d g C - Bl> and Cadence. 
552. C-Ek-f-Ak-C Bk-g-C- Cadence. 



553. b- A-D-e-G-b-D-ftf-E-A-b- Cadence. 



554. eb - Gb - at - Cb - G! - b\> - e\> - Cadence. 



555. Pf - di - B - gf - d| - Ci - Ft . Cadence. 



8O. Play originals as above, choosing next-related keys and making the smoothest pro- 
gressions you can. Do this until considerable facility is acquired. 

Finally, play the Dom. Tths of 550 to KM in Kuccrssionfdeccptive resolutions of the Dom. 
7ths) omitting all the tonic chords but the last, according to the following rule: 

RULE FOR SUCCESSIVE DOMINANT SEVENTHS (Deceptive resolutions):- Use the suc- 
cessive Dom. 7ths in any inversion, or fundamental position, In such a way that no voice progress- 
es more than a whole-step in any one move (i. e. no voice leaps), but may move either upward or 
downward. Avoid consecutive perfect fifths. The la*t Dom. 7th should resolve regularly to its 
tonic. Complete each exercise with a cadence formula. 



1P H1IS 



22 (b) Modulation through the Dim.7th chord of the new key (<| 45). 

Exercises which modulate by the Diminished Seventh Chord 

6 

n * t 6 g i 



556. 



f r if 



r 



557. 



3 7 



4 
6 8 



558. 



m 



3 



si 



* 



7 

i 



m 



ir T ir T 



559. 






-6- 



6. 7, 



I 7 







560. 



J 

8 8 6 



-4- 
3. 6 



65 ^ 

4 tt 2. 6. 7J> 



64-%- 67 

4 -fr 8. 6. 4 it 



u 



o 



661. a; | 



5l> 6 



6 
5, 



5 6 



_ 

i r r r <r 



r i 



562. 



3 2 

-e 






3 



33 e 






6 ^ 
7 48. 6 



J i r n r r ir r 



6l| -6- 
4 5 



4 6 

6 * 4 



6 6 
745 



6 

* JL 






564. 



H 



6 7 6l| 
5 



6 7 
4 



W 



J rt 
& ,n 



J 7_ 



-6-6 



Tr O * 



I 



-e- 



11888? 



81. Pass from key to key in exercises 550 to 555, by way of tbeir Dim. 7th chords. 



re) Modulation through the Aug. Six-five chord of the new key 



. The new tonic is reached as an accented six-four, to which is added V? - I. 
positions are sometimes used. 



Other 



.() 



(b) 



(c) 



3 



3E 






K 



Ex. 62 



^ 



9+ 
ft 



6-*- 8+ 
4+ ft 
_| 3 



i 



te 



-- 



I 



CI D 




(a) (t)($(d) Some of the smoothest ways of reaching the Aug. Six- five:- at (b) from a I* , 
(c) through an Aug. Six- four-three to avoid con. Kths, (d) the Aug. Six-five first in other than 
conventional form to escape con. Bins, or a cross -relation. 

(e) 9)(g)(h) Free yet quite permissible approaches to the Aug. Six-five. One should avoid 
con. Bths, but may disregard augmented intervals and cross-relation in any modulation by alter- 
ed chords. 



I 



6 
4 



* 



II 



r ic r i- 



. 



688 



H 



Jl, I 



i 



i 



e T s 

^^ 



T ;, i 



1 



588. 



^ 



" 



(V 

l r r l|- J l 



^ 



n 



an 



e-*- 



Modulator? unrction through 3 



24 



570. Sequences of modulations by the use of |"t 



j 



571. 



CI 



j a ' j * 



* II V 7 I DJ* II V 7 I 



CI Dg* II V 7 I E|* II V 7 



Extend through the octave, ascending by half steps. 
This and similar sequences from F. J. Lehmann/by permission) 



Ascending by whole steps. 



83. Also invent and play sequences similar to 570-1. Finally modulate from any key to 
every other in the circle, f 75. (The other Aug. Sixth chords are also available for these modu- 
lations, but the Doubly Aug. Fourth leads to major only). 

(d) Modulation through the Dim. 7th on the 
raised fourth degree of the new key 

84:. Use this chord preferably in its fundamental position (permissible in first inversion) 
and reach it through the nearest chord -tones. Resolve it to the new tonic six- four chord, on any 
accent, and add V?- I. The chord is often indicated by 



Ex.63 



rr 

J=J: 



f 3 ? 



% 



(b) 



fT" 
ibt 



CI 



f 



-o- 



-o- 



(d) 



-0- 



" Jo 
*i ITp 

'^JL^ 



(c) 



_ 

r r 



ci 



t 



o -* 



3=4 



?^r 



* 



r. r 



P 



(e) 



# 



f 
J=tt 



=Jt 



^ 



-&- 



r=i 



* 



^^ 



BHVJ 



Gng 



(a)(b) Typical models. 

(c) The old tonic taken in first inversion avoids an augmented second. 

(d) The modulating chord taken in its first inversion. 

(e) Cross- relation is unobjectionable as in practically all progression to modulatory (altered) 
chords, see under Ex. 6Z. 

(f) The augmented second, good. Compare this modulation with (b,, which is identical in sound. 

(g) This chord is sometimes spelled as a Dim. 7th on the raised second of major keys (f 64). 



572 - 



Exercises which modulate by the Dim. 7th on the raised fourth 



866 



. 

J 



4 



573. 



A 

r 



t 6 



r r i 



y * 



r 



r 



fi 



574. 



, 8 



i 



-e- 

25 



-4 

4 2. 



67 
4 



-e- 



1 



AP*. 11888^ 



575. 



|.| r * 

576. * * 




vj^jitj |J>^^ 



e 

5. 



Beethoven 



85. Pass from key to key in exercises 660 to 666 by way of the Dim. 7th on the raised 
fourth degree of the new key, Add to each new Ij a V 7 -I cadence. 

In the same manner modulate from any key in the circle Of 76) to every other key. 

Sequence of modulations by the use of the Dim. 7th on the raised fourth 

Extend through the octave, 






J 



J J J i 




ascending by half steps. 



7 Extend through the octave, 
ascending by major seconds. 



V 7 I EiV7.IIete 



Also invent and play sequences similar to B78-9 ascending or descending 
by other intervals. 

Modulation through the Neapolitan Chord of the new key 

86. The Neapolitan Chord rs not, properly speaking, a tendency chord although produced 
by alteration: but its characteristic resolutions to the tonic six -four or to the dominant of its own 
key entitle it to a place among the musician's modulating materials. 






=^ 



(c) 



-o- 



g g> 



r T 



Ex.64 







^ 



BN 



: 



V 



FlN V 




Z 



(Vo) 



te 
?-8- 



fa) 1 MI* Typical modulations using the N" with or without, Its passing seventh. 

<b) The N'' resolves to its accented it . 

(c; The N* doubles its root and reaches the new tonic through V* . 

(A) If simpler to notate, the enharmonic equivalent of the Neapolitan 

chord may be used, (here e-gf-b for fV-aV-ct). 



(Knharmonir) 



Exercises which modulate by the Neapolitan chord of the new key 

8 6 



580. 5 



/3 . 

IT i' J 



fcy f^ 

y-ti r 



j 1 





581. 



(B>N 8 ) 






i 



s 



$ 



2 



P 



^ 



P 



8 7 



(gN 6 ) 



i 



A * 

U 2 



4 "eb 5 fa 

sl ! J 



. 



si 



P 







* 



582 



Supply -the alto and tenor 
7^ 56 6 



& 5 
6 



, | 



I 3 



6 



(EN 6 ) 

a 56 387 



- i 7 5* 



if r rrif r'r ir j rrir 




583. Unfigured bass. Introduce an |"*~, a fj and modulate through the N B . 









984. 





-e- 




? 




6+ 
5 



6+ 
5 



N 8 



*fr 



Analyze fully and transpose 



J j 



P 



Sequence of modulations by the use of the N 8 of the new key 




586 



CI 



P 



JCI 8 V V * letc 
Jr> 1SJ8 v L etc - 

587.< B N 



V| I DN 8 "VJ letc. 

J IV J f^^ 



Extend through the octave ascending by 
half steps through major keys. 



Extend through the octave descending by 
half steps through major keys. 



Extend this ascending by minor thirds 
through major keys. 



Invent and play sequences similar to 585-7, ascending or descending by 
other intervals. 

Also modulate from any key in the circle (f 75) to every other key by N 8 or N*. 




27 



Modulation to more or less distant keys, 
Special Intervals up or down, Enharmonic Notation, 
Deceptive Resolution, Pivot Chords 



(t) 



i 



o 




** 



Ex.65 



i 







per 4* h 



Up a half -step 



Down a half -stop 




(e) 



(f) 



(8) 







00 



u 



o 



e 



o 



>-J P 

Dp a mln.jd 



Up an ang. 4* 
(or dim. 5th) 



Down a half -step 




Down two min. 84* 



(k) 



0) 




Too abrupt 



Down a maj. 3*? 



Up a min. 39 



Ex. 65. Add a closing cadence to each of these except (e) which needs a V?- I only, and mo- 
dulate all these distances In the same way from every major key. 

(a) The old tonic is a pivot -chord quitted as V in the new key. 

(b) The new Dora. 7th is the Aug. 8ix-five(enhannonicaHy notated) of the old key (a pivot -chord;. 

(c) The old tonic is N in the new key (a pivot- chord). 

(d) The N* of the old key is the V in the new, to which is added the seventh. A pivot -chord, 
bent in the third inversion. Note that Ok) is the enharmonic equivalent of (d); avoid fifths as at (1). 

(e) The old Dom. 7th is the Aug. Six-five (enharmonicatty notated) of the new,- a pivot - 
chord and must always be complete. 

(f) (ft) Deceptive resolutions. The virr- of the old key is enharmonically vn-i<- of the new, 
a pivot-chord usable in both minor and major keys, par. 45. By this means one reaches those keys 
one, two x or three minor thirds distant (or enharmonic equivalent). 

(h) (1) Modulations by the Dom. 7th to rather distant keys. Good because the third of the 
new tonic does not produce any unpleasant, or too abrupt, contradiction of the old key. With 
scarcely an exception those modulations by Vi which come within Mr. LehmannV rule for pure 
modulation 4 ' are sufficiently smooth for most purposes. The rale includes all the next related 
keys. However within the rule, C to aV (or pi) is poor. On the other hand C to f breaks the 
rule but is good, see (a) above. 

(j), Not a pure modulation, obviously too abrupt. 

* Note. RULE: A modulation is pare in mode when the third of the new tonio triad or its enharmonic e. 
qaivalent, i* contained in the old key. In minor key* the notation of either the original or harmonic fo 
may be used. F. J. Lehmann- Lessons in Harmony. 



Chap.V Non-harmonic Tones 

1. The Suspension 

87. The Suspension is a prepared discord a degree higher (or lower) than the chord-tone which 
it temporarily displaces, and to which it logically resolves. Three factors are involved:- the Preparation, 
The Suspension itself, and the Resolution. 

In the following suspensions, locate the part to which each figure refers. 

8- a $ 



Ex.66 



(f } 



# " 




I" i 


tv j 


1 ^ 


a ij-j 




mi 


^ fj 




jo | 


1 3 d R 







e 


_u 






-R- 


^-e 


e 





























J' tl 




TJ 




e, 

















Lff* 1 





















43 

(g) 



7 

65 
3 

(h) 



987 



43 



98 
6 



flL LI 


n 


? 


^ 


x $jl 


_ 




"^ & 







-S 


O 


. 

Bad 














-3E 










Efcl 


X *i 


' ( V 




D 




1 



7 8 



5 
2 



The Preparation 

88. The Preparation may be any chord-tone, but preferably not a passing seventh, unless 
not tied to the suspension. Those sevenths and ninths which may enter through a leap from be- 
low are sufficient preparation (a) (b) (c)(d). 

The preparation is usually as long or longer than the suspension. This rule is frequently re- 
laxed when the preparation rs not tied over to the suspension (d). Occasionally the rule is frank- 
ly disregarded. 

Preparation by substitution is not permitted, since a true suspension is a prolongation of 
what was first a chord-tone. (Exceptions do not need place here). 

The Suspension 

89. The Suspension should be foreign to the chord with which it appears, the more clearly 
so the better. Best when it is a seventh above, or second below, some legitimate chord-member. 

The suspension should enter upon an accent, or an accented part of a beat. It is frequent- 
ly more effective when not tied. 

The suspension may delay the entry of a root, third, fifth, or diminished seventh, (a) to (f) 
Ex. 66. The delay of root or third is the more frequent, delay of the fifth best when restricted 
to a chord of the seventh, or in a sequence, (b) and later. (Ex. 69 a, b). 

The term, Retardation, is usually used to designate the suspension which resolves upward (g). 

The Resolution 

90. The Resolution occurs upon an unaccented beat, or part of a beat, in triple measure on 
the second or third beats (a)(b)(c). 

No voice but the bass may sound the resolution simultaneously with the suspension without 
some detriment to the harmony, and in any case this reduplication must appear at least a full 
ninth (with retardation a full seventh) below the suspension (c)(e)(g). Hence when the suspen- 
sion is in the bass, no reduplication of the resolution is possible (h). Exceptions rare. 

When the bass does sound the resolution simultaneously with the suspension, this resolution 
must be a root, or possibly (with good approach) a minor third, or other tone which would be sat- 
isfactorily doubled if the suspension were not used (c)(e). 



29 



The Suspension 7 6; Suspensions in the bass 

Su. , tx Sui. ,_ v Sat. 

Ret. 



Ex.67 



(f) 




(g) 






* a 

(a) The figures (7 G) or(J ) indicate a triad in first inversion with delayed root. In no case 
to be considered a chord of the seventh. Compare with the next example. 

(b) The figures(-) indicate what is here shown, i.e. two complete chords of the seventh, 
Or a six-five chord with delayed root, the analysts depending on environment. 

(c) A triad in first inversion with a suspension and a retardation. The context makes this so obvi- 
ously a tonic with delayed root, that analysis as a chord of the seventh is illogical 

(d) A triad in first inversion with delayed root, through a retardation. 

(e) ft) Triads with suspension In the bass. Note the figures. Add no intervals to those indicated. 
Either Interval may be doubled. 

(g)(b) Chords of the seventh with suspensions in the bass. Three figures are here required to 
indicate the chord. 



The Suspension with Change of Harmony, with the Six-four Chord, and 
Double Suspensions 

() l^ xl I <b) . I (c) , (d) (e) 



Ex. 68 



f 


-" V 


H-fj g; &* 


n 


* rJ 


H'\ 


*- 


9^Z. 


5=1 




-? 5 


pv V* 
U V, aVJ 

~' s " r 


EH 








\ 




[.y* 


^P 


v ! t 




A 
5 4 




A 

7 8 
5 4 




9 8 
7 6 



^ i ^ , / j ___ 


i 


Sot Q^ *" 


s ** 




-r- 












y, 


W - 


or 
9 10 
7 8 




f 


1 


4V KV 








, 








f 
















t * ft 

78 4 


7 



fa) (b) A different harmony appears with the resolution of the suspension. 
(c) (d)(e) In each case a six-four chord. At (c) root delayed, (d) root and third delayed,(e) 
third and fifth. 

(f) Retardation delays the root and third. 

(g) A triad with the the third delayed, becomes a seventh chord when the third enters (also 
figured 



30 



Ex.69 



Ex.70 



(a) 



The Suspension 6 5; Reduplication of the Resolution 

(b), (c) (d) (e). (f) 



j fe 








^ 


a e 


~r 


s 


3= 




rl 


d r ) 


E 


TI _ 


3P 


JU 


_ & rl 




Ufr 8 F 


=S 

-n 


-O 


3t= 

Ti 


1_ 





0*^ 

0- 




Fair 

J 


2 

'-n 


rri 


- 


-h- 




-A 


9- 


Fair 




\ */ 

Bad 




6 
3 


5 4 


5 L "3 K ' 

o i o 


1 " 






7 6 

A _j-_- 

o __ 


- 


--I . - 


^sU- 

"6 
4 
2 






-. . 


4 




\ ** 

4 3 
3 





(a) Suspension of the fifth in a triad, f! . An 8 is understood. Never double the 6 nor the 
5. See also par. 32. Although in itself a consonance, the sixth here delays an expected fifth in 
the dominant triad and is therefore accepted by the ear as a true suspension. 

(b) The 4 3 suspension gives the 5 in the succeeding measures the character of a suspen- 
sion also. Play (a) (b) as a sequence, continue it and add a cadence. 

(c) The ninth demanding resolution, fails to establish a as a chord tone. Here again the 
ear accepts the tj as a suspension. Generally speaking, aside from such favoring conditions 
as have been quoted, the suspension of the fifth in a triad is weak. 

(d) Permissible appearance of the resolution in the tenor simultaneously with the suspen- 
sion, see again ^90. The tenor approaches the C stepwise in contrary motion. This is con- 
sidered a compensating feature in this particular progression. 

(e) Retardation in the bass with reduplication of the resolution in an upper voice, bad. 
At (f) a fair correction, (g) A doubled major third or doubled Leading- tone is worse with 
a suspension than without it. 

The Suspension saves certain Consecutive Fifths, but never Consecutive 
Octaves. Bad Covered Octaves. Suspensions in two or more parts 

*(a) I (b) 1^ ^ I I (c) _ ^ I i 





1 * 




' Of 


*e 




ii 


or- 


IV 




J~if 












e> 




e. . 


SL 


^ 


-r 


4fi 




D 












' 


\ 
Fair 


Questii 
* 


>nable 




Bad 




Bad 










P Q 




* 




/^~"~~ 




+ 














r & 






JP 




1 J 










-I 


. O 





7 6 






e 8 
4 a 




6 
4 



?v-J4 (* 

*S 



2 

6 



6 
4 



(a) Consecutive fifths with a first inversion are saved by the suspension. With the bass 
these fifths are questionable (b). 

(c) The suspension cannot remove consecutive octaves. 

(d) A covered octave with the resolution is bad. 

(e) These two suspensions produce the typical progression, I4~V. Since the harmony is 
really a V throughout the measure, doubling the C or the e would be doubling a suspension. 
This is the fundamental reason for doubling the bass only (4 14). 

(f) Three suspensions. 

(g) A suspension in the bass simultaneously with one in an other voice. Note the figuring. 
The dashes continue the 2 and 3 but the 6 and e are reckoned from their respective bass-notes. 

(h) Suspension of the fifth in a trial In its first inversion. Not a \ chord. The 6 is best 
doubled, but the bass could be doubled. 



Suspensions In the soprano only 



. 

J I 
"J I 



988 9 8 l| 589 







5 ft * 3 4 3 9 8 4 5 7 



I y J r j I " I I " I I B1 I 1 
.A" " [ I I II I I I 







" 



>ixr 

590. 






J I 



i^ 



8 57 43 78 



8 

54 43 







I I I 



7 6 



7- 
t 



98 



1 t 

4 

- 



7 




. . 

r " ir ' ' ' 



B92. 



. 



yur JL. 



8 5 

43 43 



ft 48 98 78 



7 

4 43 



__ ___ 

M i .. i o i* i 







Rft9 ' 

' 76 3 76 



7 ft 7 _ 8 7 6 ft 48 



_ _ 

u J u j u u j u 



9 8 
6 






Beftia in open position 



Suspensions in any voice except the bass 



J rJ 



7. 6 08 438 



4398 B--43 , 75 



ip r M r 



595. 



8 7 6 



5 4 
Z 



98 43 



7 
43 






^ I 



596. 



11. 

s 



988 7 ,8, 898 



1 A i A 

r if r ir j iJ J iJ J 



8 7 
780ft 5443 



O.S.D. 



597. 

=B 



7 * ft 
^ * 



9 8 f 



7 ft 
4 8 
t _ 5 



r ' r r if j u 



04 
5 4 3 

8 S 



ft 



4 7 1 O.8.D. 



rrrn 



*. 










.. 

T 







. .> 

r i.J 



. 



s i- 



r irrr " J i iy i 



Suspensions in the bass only 



599. s 



5 _ 

o 



" I T^ .T^ p 

y J r [f rp 






5 _ 
2 



5 5 






5 



5 



5 
3 



6 



600. 



32 



5 
2 



^ 



-fcfH 



r r i" ir n 



r ir r if r 





5 
3 


V--s 


I - 5 _ 
2 ^ ^g g 






fcli 


|- 






5* 










^ P 






*2 


~5 J 






1 n 1 


J 






-E 




i 


-S. 






..r , 








-E *L- 


-K 




. 1 1 



601. 



5 

3^ 2 



5 

.2 






5 . 



m, 



j ini'rr 



5 









602. 



^ 






nar Tf 



f=r=*H 



Note. The suspension in the bass is sometimes indicated by a diagonal stroke followed by the regular figures 
which would express the chord were there no suspension. This is simpler and clearer than the most usual figuring. 
Compare Nos.601 and 602 the solutions of which should be identical. 



Suspensions in any voice 



603- 



36 



986 



6 6 
6 5 



^. 2 766 



6 7 

4 1^ fi 



,h g p * 1 , . 

r IT r ir r r^^ 



p^ 



6 



6 
5 



6 5 



6 98 

5 43 



to P. I . . ~ L _ n * 

j j u J up ir r ir T i r i j. i r i 



s 



604 



ate 



; 

8-7 ' ' 
|?=98 



/7 



43-98 



g 



76 98 7 

5 5 

43 3 48 



Bach 



rr w r^r T j 



605. 



5 6 



76 76 5 / 



7-8 



4 8 76 7 6 



606. 



3 87 



3 

8 3 7 1 



7 6 
4 
3 6 



6 

8 546 6 
76 -124 5 



i=- 

~ 3 



Bach 



i ir r ir r r if j i i 



607. 



7-6- 5 



9 8 
4 3 



9 8 
7 6 

O 



9 8 7b 

- 



9 8 
43 



76 



7 

X 



6 5 



m 



8.11338^" 



33 




610. 



* 7 . < 



Ij6 8 

^65 _ 

5663 4356 :i _ 



7 H 

6 
6 3 



7 8 .6 

-6 
4 



_ 

6-6 
4 




Note. In many paprB thetf it placed before the figure as in those from the Guild examinations. 



611. 




One solution upper 
7 figures, one the lower 



987 
765 
4 -IS- 




APltMU* 



34 



. Passing Tones and Embellishments 

91. When Passing-tones and embellishments are to be used in a figured bass, dashes are 
used after the usual figuring as in the following example. 

(a) I ., (b) , (c) 



Ex.71 



5 6 



6 4 _ 9 




p 



Bad 







=? 



Correction 



* r~i 



A A 



8 7 T 5 T_ <8 7 '5 2_ 4 

(a) The chords are indicated as usual and the dash continues the chord while the bass moves. 
Signs; (+) Unaccented passing -tone, (o) Accented passing-tone, (E) Embellishment. 
These ornaments, together with the passing sevenths, afford a very flexible bass, as will be 
seen in the following chorals from J.S.Bach. 

(b) (c)(d)(e) Some common faults and their correction. 

(f) Good. No fault can be found with consecutive perfect fifths if either member of the sec- 
ond fifth is not a chord-tone. 



(a) . , (b) 
It J J ill 



+ (P) 




In Ex. 72 the fragments are from Bach's solution of the chorals which follow. (616-619) 

(a) Passing tones in two voices. 

(b) Passing tones and an embellishment. Here also a passing tone prepares a suspension in 
the tenor. Let the student consider this exceptional. 

(c) The passing seventh temporarily crosses the bass. Par. 72. 

(d) Bach here reduces the suspension, 9 8, to 2 1. This resolution into a unison may be jus- 
tified between the tenor and bass by assuming that the latter will be played on a iC-foot stop, 
thus sounding an octave lower than written. Not recommended when 9 8 is available. 

/ e) Oblique motion of a passing tone into a unison. Generally forbidden in the books though 
to be found rather often. To avoid it makes for clarity. "Let each voice respect its neighbor's 
territory" is a good general rule. 



1133S 1 ? 



Bach Chorals containing suspensions, 
passing tones and embellishments. 

Supply the alto and tenor. 



616. 



Der Tag, der iit to freadenreich * 




r* 



f^PP 



m 



3 < 



5 



8 7 



"T 



5-7 
8 4 8_ 



326 



78 
5- 



587 
5 8 it 



3 2 31 565 



1 



P 



* r - J 




H 4- 


























H 4-H 


iffl 1 P /T 























1 




Q 




m W 


VV 1 * 














^ M 


Qfl 






1 




JIJI 






J 

6-7 
87 43 




5 8 _ 


5 


2 


8 




5 
7- J 


87 8 
5 


j 


3 


9 

h- Mr 




ff 

4 

I 


* 2 

p4- 


n 87 






k^N 




* 


H 


N 




N'^i 


E 




-i ^ 






LJ- 


' < i 



Allfin en dir, Hrrr Jesu Christ 






i 






4 
8 2 



J J JJT 



3 



8 8 
8 L_4_ 



g 



-H J' ll:ISH' 






36 



618. 



An Wasserflussen Babylon 



A_ *- 


^ 


p* 









p~- 




P ^ J 




p ' 


E p^i 


_I J 










am f r m 


3- 


ffT> j 










^P' I 









P 




1 P 


P m 


* 








53 




\MJ ^ 
















[ 


















L 










8 7 


8 


75 


6 - 




^J 1 

3 7 6 

-m _- 


1 
3 


1 
Z 6 ( 


LJ 
> 87 


5 7 
4 3 










8 

7 
5_ 6_ 
6 2 


7 6 




(^ 


* 


-H 


_B 




P* 




2 


* i 


' p* 


H 


^ 











' P 


^ 





t- 




-* 


- 





^ 




- 1 P 


- 


3 


J *- 


i 


- 








rrr 






m 



s 



o 



f 



PP 



^ 



^ 



6 7 
4 4* 



56 



6 3|- 



STljet 6 

p 



987 



5^ 



3 2 5 



6_ 
3 2 8 5 7 



4- 



P 



619. Herzlich lieb hab' ich dich, o Herr 






yl jr 1 


j pi i 




M j 










^= 






I J ==q 


-2TI 1 


r J J =^ 

874332 




3 ^pp"r 


=i 




5 6 

p 


*= 

8 7 


J 

876 


^ J 
3 


2 


Jt_ ri J J 

7 <> -*- 
- l~?*L 9 8 8 i 7 




= ' rf 




-f-"- 5 1 






fe 


j 


7T=a 


rj= 


=^-^gbp t;J 



^ 



pi=P 



^ 



^ 



P 



r Fr r 









7 

6 5 5 3 
2 



6 
5787 



2 5 3 






68 

3 2 5 * 



3 . 2 



5 
4 
6 2 8766 






it r r r 









3 6 






87*28712 



5767 



2 5 8 



6 6 



,5 98 5JM 



567 

JL^ 5 - 6 









. 11888 >? 



37 




3 



- .t 

u 5 * 



-- 6 
8 - 4 



"~ 1 i 



_. a I * 

P f Hp r HP tm 

L_J ti^rz^ra 



Ol' 

5 6 tf g . * m sl l 



65766 



i 



Bach 



620. Harmonize simply in four parts 




Play an accompaniment to this, one harmony to a measure except in the final cadence. 
622. A1 ' non-harmonic tones must be passing tones or embellishments. 



38 



Ex.73 



3. Appoggiatura, Anticipation 

92. The Appoggiatura is briefly defined as an unprepared suspension. It is most express- 
ive when on the accent, but unlike the suspension it may appear on the unaccented beat. It is 
taken by a leap of an augmented second or more- It is commonest in the highest voice. 

93. The Anticipation is the opposite of a suspension in that it becomes a discord by tak- 
ing a tone of the following chord before that chord enters. The anticipation is unaccented. 
It usually enters stepwise but need not do so. 




(a)(b) Appoggiaturas on the accent, and on the second half of the beat respectively. 

(c) Anticipation in the soprano. Sign, A. 

(d) Simultaneous appoggiaturas. (e;, Simultaneous anticipations. 



Sign,Ap. 




9-4. Compare Ex. 74 A and B. If the unornamented harmony is correct the appoggiaturas 
used to enrich it may enter with great freedom, e. g. leaps of a major seventh, augmented and 
diminished intervals, apparent cross- relation, consecutive perfect fifths^if the second one con- 
tains an appoggiatura) are permissible. This general principle applies to the use of all orna- 
ments, especially as regards consecutive fifths and cross-relation. The appoggiatura should 
not resolve obliquely into a unison. 

In harmonizing a melody which contains appoggiaturas or other non-harmonic tones, think 
it first without any ornaments, choosing a harmonization that is clear and logical, with a 
decided predominance of the primary chords. This accomplished, the resumption of the orna- 
mental tones should seem a simple matter. 



A.S 8. 11838 b 



Exercises containing the Appoggiatara and the Anticipation 




An appoggiatura, anticipation or passing tune at the +. 



Ornamental Resolutions of the suspension, 
appoggiatura, passing tone and embellishment 



The suspension ornamentally resolved, sign: s. oma. 



(., 



S.,. 



,, 



*" 



c, 







*<> 



IEJ 




V 




d 









or 




2 


!a 




m "-w m fj 


IS 






^ 














w 


** \ 




Of 


Ex.75<| 


P 
1J 


JJL 
















AX 






AX 


P 

A <e) 1 ^ 


C 
- I***! 




f) 


l^^*-""] 


. 


r-i 


1 


n \^- 


. ! I 


1 1 










rl _1 










i i 


; i 


r 




1 1 










m m ~ 











a _l 


1 


B 




I a 




















9 


/A 






^ 






































AX 








H. 
JJ 
11 


id. 

L 
1 






-- 










-^- 





























(a) The suspension takes any suitable chord-tone before revolving. The resolution maintains 
ita relative place in the measure. 

(b) The suspension leaps to the other neighbor of the resolution to which it then proceeds 
tepwise. 

(c)(d) The suspension takes two short notes stepwise before resolving. The presence of the tone of 
resolution In the ornament (here B in ex. c) does not constitute a resolution; hence (f) is bad. 

(ej The suspension Is repeated (articulated) and then resolves. All of these ornaments take their 
time value from the suspension . 

(H) A permitted variant of (c). 



40 
The 

628. s oma 


suspension ornamentally resolved 

^ - .^JS.orna f ^S- "" S.orna 
-p~ -73 pi O s~ - ^ p- 


1 r i 


? (/ f 1 U Lj I 


ir J f ir r r r r=fe 


f 1 



S.orna 




Ex.76 



(a) 



The Appoggiatura, Passing-tone and Embellishment orna- 
mentally resolved. The Free Anticipation and Free Tone 

F.A. 



z^bJ 




i ^ 




i > ' 
!i i 


i j i 
-o 

-e- 






H 


^-f^ 


nn 


^0 


LZ! 1 


L^ 1 




n i 


[ ii 1 [ . }. -- ) 





(a) The other neighbor of the resolution or any suitable chord-tone may precede the resolution. 

(b) (c) The passing -tone and the embellishment are distinguished from the appoggiatura 
merely by the way in which they are approached. The ornaments do not differ essentially 
from those of the appoggiatura. 

(d) The Free Anticipation is left by a leap and is a member (actual or understood)of the 
chord which follows. Sign: F. A. 

(e) The Free Toneisneither a member of the chord with which it appears nor to which it 
proceeds. Sign: F. T. 




+orna 



+ orna 



Eorna 



+oma 



F.A. 



633. 




Relatively very few sight-playing tests demand ornamental resolutions. Those here given 
show in a measure what might be done with certain figures, but the student is advised to use 
moderation in this direction. Do not outline loosely a merely passable harmony and allow the 
fingers to skim over many notes which you call "ornaments of some kind". 



A.P8.113S8 1 .' 



41 



Part VI. The French System 

of Figured Bass 

95. The Harmony Lessons and Examinations prepared by such eminent French- 
Ben as Albert Lavlgnac, Auguste Chapuis, Alez.Guilmant, Theo.Dubois, Gabriel Faure, 
Ch. M. Wider, Vincent D'Indy, Caesar Franck, and many others, afford such a wealth of ma- 
terial for advanced study and sight playing that it has seemed best to give here a brief ex- 
planation of the French system of figured bass. 

96. In general the French system employs the same characters to indicate inversions, 
alterations, suspensions, etc., that we find in the American, English and German figured basses. 
For instance the use of 6 to represent a first inversion, a (f) to refer to the third above the 
bass, are universal. The figuring of all secondary seventh chords that contain a per- 
fect fifth is the same in all systems. But the figures used to denote the V, V?, vn7, vur> 
(that is the whole family of primary dissonances) and the n ? in minor are peculiar to the 
French system and must be committed to memory if any facility in their use is desired. In 
sequential modulatory passages, and anywhere that the primary dissonant chords are used, 
the special signs used by the French obviate the necessity of numerous signs of alterations 
impossible to avoid in our own method, as will be seen a little later in the examples to be 
given. 

The French figuring 

(a) A stroke / through a figure indicates a diminished interval. For example % means 
a diminished fifth-, standing alone it means a diminished triad. 

(b) A plus sign (+) before a figure denotes the leading tone, the (4) alone applies to 
the third above the bass, the figure 3 being then omitted. 

(c) A zero (O) alone indicates silence; above or below other figures, the suppression of 
some chord member, e.g., O denotes a triad with the third omitted. 

(d) A major or minor triad is indicated by 5, 3 or 8; most often by the B which is by 
some authors placed over every triad- root. Some reserve the S for minor triads. When a f, 
t or ^ is used to indicate the third, the perfect fifth is always understood. The inversions 
of these triads (with any necessary signs of alteration) are expressed in the same manner as 
in our figuring. 

(e) The special arrangement of chord members, as with us, is sometimes suggested by 

unusual groupings, e.g., 5, 8. 

6 

(f) A + before 7 (thus +7) denotes the Dom. 7th chord over the Tonic, (the French 
accord de 7me sur-tonique), the +7, the Dom. 0th chord over the Tonic. 

(g) Note carefully that the plus sign (4} is always used in connection with primary dis- 
sonant chords to designate the leading tone (unless already present in the bass). It is not 
however used to denote the leading tone in the triad on vu, but Is reserved for chords of four 
or more tones. N. B. + denotes our V) not vn. 



Examples of French figuring 



The/ 



Ex.77 




The + 



The O The- 5, 5, or 8 



7 

+ 



7 
+ 



4-6 
-6- 



O 5 




Suggested arr. The $, V 



The V? 
- 



The Leading Tone 7th. 




[ This when 1I7 in minor. 



The Dim. 7th. 



Alterations if necessary. 



TheV 9 




The V 7 and V 9 over-tonic. 



VH7 and Dim. 7 over tonic. A few Suspensions. 




Simplicity in denoting primary dissonant chords. 

Let the student figure this by the usual method and compare. 



Exercises in French figuring 






6 

*- 



7 
+ 



i> 

*' * _ * * 






1 I I I I 







* 



835. O 



S +63 



78 



7 6 






5 
4 3 



ft 
4 3 



J + 



7 

4 



5 7 

4 + 



-O- 



637. 5 
flrt J 




1 




& 






t 




5 

y j 


S 6 
* 56 6 -*- 


5 5 




' I 


5 


^- If* Q 
















1 1 1 


?= 













638. 



Be 4 4+ 478 639. f, 




6 ft -ft-46 5 6 



7 
5 
4 4 



45 

* 3 

43 5 6 



7 

5- 65 

4 3 + 5 




J 2L 



8 



J 



ft 44 



, 6 




44 



Chap.VH. Examination Papers 

From the A. G.O., Noted Conservatories, and Other Sources 



Prom "Rules and Instructions for Playing 
Thorough-bass or Accompaniment in Pour Parts, 
made for his Scholars in music by Johann Sebastian Bach" 
t 5 5 



MS! - ** 4 * | 5, , 4 8 * 8 4 3 4 3 4 3 , 6. , 


S X^ ' it I ^k 




m* ~H ~JlQ I 4D I ^2 1 Jfl^^E 4Q 22 


i, I 3CXICC3 




I nW & 




f~ 1 If* H* 


If K R 

6 . t .# 6 , 4 3 4 , S 4 s! 4 3 4 3 8, jf 4 jf 










2J n^H P^ 1 40 1 22 1 C 




^1 I' ^^ -^ ^~^~^*~ ~ I ^^ 1 K ^*^ 1 ^ 1 1 ^^ 




Eight different basses under one choral 

340 J. Ch. Kittel, last pupil 
J A J* tt Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir. ; ^ of J.S.Bach 


Jf ffji TF ^i | 1 ^ " ft H W 


r 3 r 3 r^ j 


P fJ ^ 




li 










11 k ( ^ a? 1 6 6, 5 6 6, 4 3 


4V ff fl w n -t~^ C3 * 


/n l*~- n 


r I 


f- Bj,tff*_ p* <r? I* -n 


p _ji ^v " 


J I 


X W P* *V 


' r 


^ HfflJ 


r i & " 


, 


^.^ 1 [ 1 1 


1 ' 1 

(b) 7 1 I ^ 

uM 1 o 


1 V 

5 
6. 8798768 4g 

-j \F r ~F~"* rs 


..(C) 7 5, 1 I 6, 8, ^ . 


4 
6 ^. 6 2 6 


6 
598 43 


^Js-lrrtf-fs s ?- - LMJ 


-a hpl - j- 


1 ^ 1 


i* p n " * . c *-* "a 


in i p w 










1 i "" -. 

3 4+4 
u ( d ) 6 i 7 66 4-8- 6 l| 62 6, 76 43 


fcl* nit l/^> /DlUU 




JMT f* _ j^p'inir? r inr j n^ 


D 


x n n " ^ p 1 P * I 1" ^1 p ~ 




r ^< ' i-/f' 


*^ ^- i i 


^ 1 C/ '. >^ 
u ( e ) * 8 9876 98 -6 4-8- 2 62 6 2 6, 7 6 43 








_^,tt_f Pjjjj ^ ^ . A r, J j-n 


P* & rl 


it 


/^\ 6 6 

u M 1 / 5 & 1 i 6 6 /^ 


-M ^ i 

3 I 6 2 6j 


6 4 43 


(e \ 3 84 ^ 

U ^ * 7 ^ Q 5 2 6 ( 


J 1 1 P ^ 1 

& -( 

6^ |_ 626 


5 
76 3 4S 

n 


M 6 IT 1 ! 8 n 6 ^ 


1 ' rr'r rj i 

4+ 
1) 66 

-s> r t^ 



a. 1 i^j 1 

4 
3 43 

n 


H- ft rj I ^ 1 _ Lf' *l il 1 J L 




-efK rV, : 



* The 4- calls for a raised four; cf. French figuring par. 960))- at least a family resemblance. 






(643 con.) 







i 



8 7 



zfft 



I- J u J ir J 



8 
4 S 

8 7 



g =TrJ=) 



6, 9 . 



5_ 

8 3- 
8 7 



^ 



g 



7 7 



9 7 




^^ 



P 



gr a 



7898 





4398 78*87 



43 

8-7 



8 88 



O| 

^ 



588 



O ^l i* o o 

1-jl.NjlffJ 



5_ 

8 3 
4 87 



P 



fl 
5 



IT 



9 



^ 



8 8 7 



6 6 



ft 
4 

8-7 






>*- 5 



8, 87879 7 ^^ 



87 



PP 



3 



AP*. 



46 



Through the courtesey of Mr. Warren R. Redden, Chairman of the Examination Committee 
of the American Guild of Organists, permission is given to present the following sight-playing 
tests from the years 1907 to 191C inclusive, - thirty-four examples. The papers for '07,'08, 
and '09, contained no sight-playing from figured bass. 



644. 



Given Melodies 



A.G.O. Assoc. 1907 




A. G.O. Fellowship. 1907 




646. 



A. G.O. Assoc. isos 



r - J i J. jo j if" r i r - JiJ j ir *r i*r r r r ^ J rp ' 



647. 




A. G.O. Fellowship. 1908 



r 7 



> i 



648. 






A.G.O. Assoc. 1909 



r ii rr '" r 



649. 



dfc 






A.G.O. Fellowship. 



650. 



jj J 






r 



-^ _ 

r r r 'r ' rrr 



A.G.O. Assoc. 1910 



J < |J [> 



m 







A. G.O. Fellowship. 1910 




47 



52. 



_ . 

f 



J 



J l.J 



A. 0. O. AMOC. liii 



653. 




A. GO. Fellowihip.ini 




654. 






A.O. O. Assoc. in 









655. 



I 



=* 



A. 0.0. Fellowship, tm 



656. 




* r J|JJj |J J r |,J J |JJ3 r 



A. G.O. Asioc. 1911 












tr J J r T iJ J 



A l .O 0. Fellowhip.nu 






668. 






A. G.O. AMOC. iti4 



I 




rr 



659. 



JuJ) r i r j^iJr 

i i i 




A.O.O. Fellowthip.ttM 




660. 



A.O.O. Assoc. i nit 



i J ii J J r 



r 



48 
661. 



A.G.O. Fellowship, 19 6 









662. 



A.G.O. Assoc.,1916. 



663. 




J J 



J j LI JJ 



A.O.O. Fellowship, me 



r 



664. 



Figured Basses 




A.G.O. Assoc.,i8io 



3 



(3) 6 6 
5 



6 6 
5 



665. 



A.G. O. Fellowship, mo 






r r T r r r 

T 6 '6 5 '7 5 [ 4 7 



655 
63 
3 



5- 
4 S 



666. 



A.Q.O. Assoc.,1911 



" 



o 



o 



-O- 



(5) 



6 6 



6 5 
4 3 



"Pf 

3 



' 8 7 



5 6 6 8 I 6 7678 ^B ^ 6 



H i 

J 



9 



6 8 

* HT 5 



7678 
* I* 



88 

7 I 



6 56 
8 5 5 



6 7 
4 t 



A.O.O. Fellowship, iti 









r r i 

IA _ I 



r 

* 



7 6 



4 
2 



6 '6 

8 5 

5 4 |)3 



5 6 



'6 '87 
5 



668. 



IJ J I I " I 

Jt6 6 98 9 



9 8 
7 



4 3 #6 6 |)6 6 



6 
5 



A.G.O. Assoc.,1912 



-** 


1 n 






f 


e 


U 


tr 1 * 


2 




n 




9 8 
4 3 


P 




6 




6 
5 


5 7 
4 3 


6 
5 


9 8 


6 


8 7 

44* 





49 



669. 



ir r r J 

c a la 



5 





i S 

-41 






A.G.O. Fellowship, ma. 670. 



'875 R 58 

5 , a 2^ 



6 7 L"! 






A 5 
& 4 3 



fa 4 - 



7 
t 3 



A.G. O. Assoc., mix. 






6 6 



688 

l|3 lH 



' '7 
4 



671. 



iJ 



r r IT r 

i "if^ 



' "re "r 



768 9887 



78 4 
4 



fl 
1 3 



u 

A.O.O. Fellowship, lent. 



i 



4S8 



78'8 6 "5" 



7 
4 






8 7 
7 
5 4 



672. 



A.G.O. Assoc., ii 



J 







6 4 
42 



8 r> n 
1 :< 



I 

r . 



673. 



B 87 
A.G.O. Fellowship, itM* 



S 



r 

! 8 7 



8 '7 8 8 

5 : 



fl !i '87 8 
3 i- 1 



4 8 



674. 



* (l 

A.G.O. Assor., i>&. 



4 8 



8 7 
4 J 



<8 4 



887 
4 ft 



675. 



A.G. 0. Fellowship, ii 



P* 



iPPP 



7 ',: 8 
5 



8 7 



8 7 

tl 



676. .1 



J 



A.G.O. Anoc.,i9ie. 



I ir r I i 



r r IT r r 

' 'H IT 



r 

4 5 



S ' 



677. 



J IJ J r !< r 



A.G.O. Fellowship 



-I 



f 



r r r 

i ^7 



18 6 

5 ' 



e 



1 ' 5 I 



KNOX CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

Examinations in Harmony 



678. 5 



6 
9 5 



-6- 
3 



6 6 L 

*8 -*-_ 3 3 79- 
fl 8b 2 6 6 65 



5' 



2 6 



"t 
5l. 






John W. Thompson, by per. 



6 7- 
5*4 4 S 



H' j I I 



P 



679. 






P 



CORNELL CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

Examinations in Advanced Harmony 

(See ty 58, freer treatment of the seventh; similar tendency in these from Cornell.) 



680. 



Horace A. Miller, by per. 



r r r r ' "" 

3 ^T^ <4^ 3 



3 

7 6 
3 



7 -e- 

tJL 



6 
* 5 



4-9- -4- -8- 

2 






P ( 



-o- 



3 6 
764 
3 



54 -8- 



^ Q fi A R ft 

e 6 -- 3 

3 3-8- 5 



4376 

4 

S 



681. 



Ivadell A. Swindler (Cornell) 



5 






84 6 
2 5 



4 

2 



5 9 
7 



-5-65 4- 
3 3 










87 87 



6 -6- 
4 
3 



$ 
2 5 



8 3 



98 93 
7 
4 3 5 



682. Dim. 7th chords 
7 



J u j 



OHERLIN CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

U i 



7c Geo. S. Dickinson 



rnt 



Inversions as desired 



Various Alterations 



n 



Geo. S. Dickinson 



Inversions as desired 



jtOA 



Unflgured 



From O. C. M. Kx. papers. (Written) 







P=P 



^ 



6 + 6+ 

Add alto and tenor using seven Aug. 6th chords as follows-. 4+ 4+ 

3 3 














Parentheses indicate unconventional positions- 



p^Mp =*= 


* 


k r 


1 r r * 


, 2 


-f si P "*- 


* 


if 

til ft r jho - 






t i 




1 

a <o 




^L?_r _=* p 


-^- <* -B 


3P 







r i 


- 



6So. 



From O.C. M. sight-playing examinations 



J i 



rL-rr 






N 8 



5 



686 



Sequence upward by major thirds 



Ibid. 






r 









HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Final Examinations 



687. (Written work.) 
a 



r r r up r mr r |Jt T J r |J J J | 



Walter R.Spalding,bj per 
Harvard Dniver. mio 






At ff use one of the augmented sixth chords; at b Neapolitan xixth. 



688 




I ^^ 



Harvard Univer. iio 









51 ? 



689. 




Harvard Univer. iti 



Use where appropriate any of the material at your command. 
At f sharp near the end employ an augmented sixth chord. 



690. 




Harvard Univer. mi 




Harmonise using several of the chromatically altered chords. 



52 



Secondary seventh chords 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Examination papers (written work) 



Frank E. Ward, by per. 



"i. . 




S> 


(u I 




j 


T i 


& 1 




n 


9 




*3 5 


[ 1 f 2 1 


I HI* 




VI7 


T* 
13 


] 


[V ii 2 


V IT* 
v 5 "3 




V 7 \ 


r "*, 




p 
I- v| 


_J 1 1 

I I 



IEE^E 



J if T 



r ir r ir 

'! W * ^ 'w 



IV 6 IV a vile IV* vii5 ii* V 7 If IV vn I 6 I I dip* 





















f-'j rj 






P 








J 






















&. 


I_ Kl 









V 7 viii I 6 

3 



V 7 



p l IV 7 vn| n? vif 



117^- v r 



692. Ex. in the use of the appoggiatura, passing tone. etc. 




(The sign is here used to indicate any non-harmonic tone, A.E. H.) 



Columbia Univer. 




693. 



Ex. illustrating the alterations of various scale steps. 



o 



Step, 



41, -g 



Columbia Univer. 



-e- 



Ek- i 



-61, 



2 C,t>: ~"i p. 

4? 6| 

(These alterations are nonharmonic (embellishments etc.) or may be part of an altered chord. A.E.H.) 



NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

694. Examination questions (written work) G - w - Chadwick,by per. 



V 4 ff L 














w 


~P" 2 H IJ 


















"jr T"t 


5 














P 














c 




T 
















i r 






di 








1 /ri 




t I t ' '^- 8 f 1 ! i ' 7 




T 



Harmonize according to the rhythmic indication below the staff, analyze carefully, 
. b marking each non-harmonic tone with its distinctive sign. 



696. i n Waltz time 



Write (or play) an accompaniment to this melody. 



53 

N K fun 









Aug. 6fh Chords 
fc 



ROYAL CONSERVATORY CF MUSIC, MOSCOW, RUSSIA 

Three figured basses 



with the permission of P. Jurgenson, Moscow 



r 



zr: 



g 



3 

.3 



4 3 



.'I 

t 



26 






A. Arensky 



3 4 

B 6 



698. Suspensions 



A. Arensky 



r 

. 



i rj i r r > 

43 98 



6 B 



6 '98 '9898 3 



699. Modulations 



S 



J J J U j j r 

^ 



r r r 



r 



, 



a 

ti 




A. Arensky 






H ! 






64 



TRINITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC, LONDON 

Higher Examinations, jan.ms. 



Five parts. Passing tones (sth notes), and crossing 
of inner parts permitted. (Written.) 



(Licentiate in Music." 






J IJ J Jj 

6 6 6 t 



,1. .1 J I 



986 



u O A 

i 6 f 



6 6 



6545 
4323 



By per. 









86 
5 .6 



l|6 #4 



1-7 



6 6 
4 5 



fi 5 4 5 
4323 



701. Four parts. (Written.) 



^^ 



(Associate in Music) 



-+\. 



^o 



^ 



j > r r 



P 



i 



6 
5 



S 



Trinity Col.Mus. by per. 




702. 



(Associate in Music) 




Trinity Col.Mus. by per. 



r 






. 






._ 










j 


















B 




r 




























i 

















5 










i ; ' 8 7 
6 ! * * 


-t i 


A 




8 7 

* 


$ 








703. 



From Examinations in the Art of Teaching. (L.Mus.and A.MUS.) 

(a) Describe concisely, as if to a pupil, all faults in the harmony in this Double Chant. 

(b) Criticise the drder of modulations. Trinity Col. of Music by per. 



y 

r -* 







^DL 



& 







rf 



oo 



o 



r 



fi 






J 



J 



11 



ten 



im 



z?z: 



A.S. 11SS8? 



f>5 



Eleven figured basses by permission ot the 
ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC, LONDON 

"Figured bass tests which have been used in the organ division of the R.C. M. examinations for 
704. Associatehhip (A.RC. M.) in the practical work at the organ?' 



* 



g J J 1 Irr T 



J |J r u. "i 



r 



788 



8 I 



43588 



88 



7 
I 



705. 



J r nrrrri' J fUJuj'riry 

^ J;: 'Uli ! J ' 1 



R.C. M., London 







'# 1(6 >8 7 



708 



R.C.M., London 




3 3 



707. 



r" w * * M T "' 

f ", i r cJ MHf-r 

H_T a "a i^^. Mi *V 



J j |J rrr in 



R.C. M., London 



i 



6-| 7 H 8 ="% |e He L- f - 

,_.. 4_- 4 5 '4 Jj ^4 ^ 



|4 8 

*3 4 5 



85 7 

4 ;' 



708. 



u. r ir r ir 

6 5 |4 5 V 



R.C.M., London 



f 



4 t 



!Tl. 










709. 






R.C.M., London 



r r i j P 

TT^ " 6 ^6 







5 

4 3 



6 6 



4 



5 
3 



710. 



fW i f 



R.C.M., London 



- - 1 w- > * ^ Vf 1 1 \4 V tl 

|p J P J |J J J IJ J I ^ 

'8 "8 7^ 4 S " ^g 7^ 



6 1 

i 



e 6 a 



711. 



^ 



^ 



R.C.M., London 



c c: T 'c 



? s 



8 '7 8 



1 
5 



712. 



' r c r '[ 






^ 



76 



4 1 



^ 



Nr^Tfi 






R.C. M., London 

" r ' 



6 

4 



|l 



7-4 |3 
ll I 



8 

( 4 7 2 



fl 
S 



56 



713. 

n 



J j u ij ij r if r T ' -i '-J-^ 

98 67 d * 6 ? ^6^ >T t 7 *^ ' L 



^ 



R.C.M., London 



J. 










1 





t* 1 


* 


















z 


7 /* 








a 


rJ* 


r 












a* 












f^ 






i 






^ 









Kt 




98 76 5 436 6 76 
43 5 



714. 

^2 r r r ir "r r it r r iJ j ,j u r j 

6 6565 4 TO I- o T ~ft ' 



766 



6 6565 4 

3 43 2 



76 '7 6 6 87 ' 
5 



S 643 

I I 







^^ 



P 




| 



H4 9 8 6 
2 #6 



| 



6 

5 



7 

1, 



^ 



R.C. 



M., London 

B.H. 




r l[ r r JT i 



^ 



6 84 6 6 

4 ff 2 



6 6 



715. Unfigured bass 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY 

From Examinations for the 
degree of Bachelor of Music, 1914. (Written) 



by per. 



^*- 



r '- 1 ' 



716. 

3i 



Harmonize, using in suitable places the following chords: diminished seventh, Neapolitan Sixth, 
major thirteenth, third inversion of the French Sixth. 

Note.- If unfamiliar with English Theory it will suffice to substitute for"major thirteenth" ni re- 
solving to V? or I, and tor"third inversion of the French Sixth", || with a diminished 3rd (or 10th) be- 
tween the bass and one of the upper parts. (A.K.H.) 



" J J J I i^N 



m 



fi=^t 



7- 
5 

K- 



5- "3 ^5_ 



Oxford, by per. 



-o- 



7 

H I) 



t 

* 



Add four parts above the foregoing bass, using the harmonies indicated where there are figures 
and varying the harmonization at discretion where there are none. 



Af.. 11338 1 ? 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY 

From Examinations for the 
degree of Bachelor of Music, 1900. (Written) 



717. 






m 



*=F 



"8 4 a 8 



|B 6 '98 '9-7- 
56- 54-JJ 



8 bfl '898? 
5 



'| 4 ft 87 



J 1.1 J IJJJJIJ JU 



J 



8 .6 
3 _b 



.8 
I* 



'8 6 
3 4 










THE CITY OF PARIS 

From the Examinations for special professors 
of vocal music in the Communal schools. 

+ i,_ _ *- 6 --7^i--Y 



From"Le$ons d' Harmonic" by 
Augustr Chapnis,by per. 



Durand * i'lr. HrU. 

8 - 5 




+4 
9 



y g<5> 



8 

5. *- 5 --4 8 , 5 5 



J 



f 



^- 



B 





* 






L *- L - 



s 



* 

r T 







vk" k r i.j r r ^f 6 



- 4 



7 
+ 



r 




+ 6 

4 



9 
7 



I 

1 



7 
6 + 



M 7 8 
h 4 



5. 



+6 



J U J 



A.f>S.ltSM h 



58 



FRENCH MINISTER OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

From the Examinations for special professors 
of vocal music in Normal, lycee and High schools 



720. 



+ 5 



6 
4 



7 

+ 



5 O 



Chapuis, by per. 

I) uranri 6 Cle. Paris. 

6 + 



IE 



5 O 







6 +* 

3 6 



n 



2 



+4 
8 



i 



g I7rv 



- 



^ L i,. j r ^r-rf^ 



? i 



-9'- 
^^_^ 



a 



g 



^ 



-i 



+ a 
i tlr iu 



be +4 

t , b 

^ 



^ 



L . e , * 1 b 



O 






e 



1* 



+4 j|6 
6 3 V 



6 
4 



7 7 

+ 6 + 



7 
5+ 



6 
4 



+4+6 



*! tl* 



332 



n 



721. 



NATIONAL CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC, PARIS 

From the competitive Examinations, men's class, 1900 
Given Soprano. 



Chapuis, by per. 

Duranri A (Mr. Paris. 





APt. 11338* 



pp 



722. 



Examination in accompaniment From u ^ nm d . H rm.nie by 

Albert Lavignac (of the National Cons., Paris). 

+ e 



Q , _ O _ 7 5 7 B 5 ~ I* _ . 

I- r i.. j i.. j ij r f i r f~r if j j i 






fl 7 

'. i * 



7 

* + 



I. 

8 5 



O 6- 



q 
7 R 4 



fl 

4 



,+t 



i IT " n 



+4 



7 e + 

f 4 I * 



7 be +4 

i 




6 7- 

4 + 6 



j r >r 



a 

H 
!V 



O ft 



JS 



U H Ifl 
7 g J 



Wltklk* pcraiUiUi *f 

Hry LoUCo.,17 Rn. 



Q 7 _ 

4 + +7 






U ' 



31= Si 



60 



,.,0 Modere 



From "1^90118 d' Harmonie", Lavignac. 

Gabriel Faure 




fcllft. - j 


^jT ' 
















' 






Q 


y 


1= 
















F^ 


. / ff 1 






0- 
















p 


























| 



^ 






p : 




p=d 






rz 


j 


\ 


1 




=P=J 


fi?=^ 






h= 






P 




6V jj 


































^ 






J 




Vff Q . 


o* 1 
-^^- 


g 


1 s 

A 




n 






[_JB 




-S 




^S 






1 * ^ 









J 







724. Cantabile 



Per. of Henry Lemolne A Co. 

17 Rue Vlgalle, Paris. 




From"Lecons d' Harmonie", Lavignac. 
Alex.Guilmant 





Per. of Henry Lemolne A Co. 
17 Run Plgalle, Paris. 




A.B8. 11338 1 ? 



61 



THE SCHOLA CANTORUM, PARIS 

Three final examinations in advanced harmony; 

by permission of the composer, M.Vincent D'Indy. to 




H 



y i' pyp 



In M. D'lndys own solution of this melody (facsimile from his pen, p.2), Theme B, trans- 
posed to Eb, is made to serve as bass in the first six bars, and both A and B appear entire un- 
der the tonic pedal. Such possibilities however are intended to be discovered by the candidate, 
the themes being merely indicated. The following problems from the Schola Cantorum (also 
Nos. 719 and 723) are of this nature, demanding a high degree of skill and some good train- 
ing in counterpoint. 



Vincent D Indy, leio, 



fVi 

fci:)|A a - h 


r^ "^""^^ f 


rj, 













rn 




bjrger 


^ T* ^ 


-- If- "* j| J 


J r r ,. 


- 


U 


^=^ 





=* 


_^ 


! 


























Trrt j J b 


1 1 1 1 T 3 


Tl o 1 


H- 


-k 


Q fyfV 






-i I 






*-. 


^ '^^ ' 


i r* 





M 










Jl: i 


^ 


UiJ=J 









Vincent D'lndy, tail, 
by per. 



_ 

r cnr r 



C-- 



62 



The following beautiful manuscript from the hand of the composer, 
M. Vincent D' Indy, is his own solution of N2 725. By permission. 




1 

1 .., ,_ - 


, 
i ' 


^-s. ^U 


. -s _ X ""~"" ' ' 




a* * H ^ ^ f ' 


i I3S ] 


T T_J ' ' lr ^ T 








1 


V 


r" ' i 
* ( * 







^ . f 


K 




L. T j~ 1 


51 ^ 3 






L * 


i "1 1 ^ 1 


^L 


L " " | ' 




J 











^^^^ 


t 


i 


t 
1 ( 




( 


| ,^5=^ ^ 


I ' x * 


( \ 


















T " ' 




a 




. ^J 1 




' T ' 




j 






! 1 1 









1 h ' 


p^ l -^=r t -^ : ] 


i 





f % 

i 

, i 


< 



63 




- *t 



^g r 




3: 



' ^ J J 



A --- -- 



^ j ;j- ^'ii: 7 *.^ i/ii-g^ 



ILI / IJiiKJ 




tt 




THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC 



THE STUDENT'S SHORT COURSE IN MUSICAL FORMS 

by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

A fundamental course which affords the student a knowledge of the 
construction of musical sentences, binary, ternary, rondo, sonata and 
fugue forms, with brief description of the overture, concerto, sympho- 
ny, oratorio, opera, as well as various dance forms. The illustrations 
given in the volume are from standard classical works. 



HELPFUL BOOKS FOR EVERY STUDENT 
: JUST ISSUED 



(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 426) 



Price $1.00 net 



A SHORT OUTLINE OF MUSIC HISTORY 

From Ancient Times to the Present Day 
by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

A brief account of the growth of music up to the present time. 
Includes discussion cf early sacred and secular music, the rise 
of opera and oratorio, leading composers of the Classical and 
Romantic Schools, also a list of modern composers, with refer- 
ence to their principal works. A chapter devoted to the de/eiop- 
ment of the pianoforte and instruments of the orchestra is of 
especial value. Price $1.25 net 



LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY HARMONY by CUTHBERT HARRIS 

Designed to prevent many of the faults usually found in a student's early exercises. Both soprano and bass parts are given, thus 
regulating somewhat the movement of the alto and tenor parts, which can be written in the book itself, thus avoiding the use of manu- 
script paper. (Schmidt's Educational Series No. 412) Price $1.00 net 



STANDARD BOOKS ON 

CUMBERLAND, GLADYS Net 

A Short Primer in the Elements of Music. One hundred 
questions and answers, and a set of six "test papers." 
A valuable handbook for individual or class use % .40 

EMERY, STEPHEN A. 

Elements of Harmony. Unexcelled for practical pur- 
poses wherever harmony is taught. Both melodies and 

basses are given for harmonization 1.25 

Key to "Elements of Harmony" . , 1.00 

Supplementary Exercises to "Elements of Harmony"... .75 

FOOTE, AKTKUR 

Modulation and Related Harmonic Questions. A thorough 
survey of all that pertains to modulation. A book that 
every student and young composer should study .... 1.25 

FOOTE AND SPALDING 

Modern Harmony in its Theory and Practice. Unique in 
its masterly handling of the entire .subject from the first 

lessons to really advanced work 1.50 

Key to 501 Exercises in "Modern Harmony" 1.50 

HEACOX, ARTHUR E. ( Book I 1.25 

Keyboard Training in Harmony. I Book II 1.25 

This method of teaching harmony makes the subject 
more interesting and enjoyable to many pupils than the 
usual written exercises. 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 181a-b) 

HILL, ALFRED 

Harmony and Melody. "Instead of every composer hav- 
ing to rediscover all the ways of writing, it is proposed 
to systematize the- material so that anyone with average 
talent can use it. The idea is to teach students to love 
and understand music by making music; just as one 
learns drawing by drawing and not by reading about it 
in a book." 1.50 



THEORY AND HARMONY 

SPALDING, WALTER R. 

Tonal Counterpoint. The principles of free part-writing 

and their practical application. $2.50 

TAPPER, THOMAS 

First Year Musical Theory. A simple, readable text upon 
all the matter that is generally included in Rudiments 
of music. Test questions and written assignments accom- 
pany each chapter LOO 

First Year Melody Writing. Presents the first principles 
of melodic invention, and may precede or accompany the 
study of harmony. Familiarizes the student with music 
notation and the elements of musical form, and simplifies 

sight reading 1.00 

First Year Harmony. (Revised and Augmented Edition.) 
Beginning with intervals and advancing to secondary 
sevenths, with a chapter on suspensions and passing 
tones. Melodies and figured basses are given for har- 
monizing 1.26 

Second Year Harmony. A continuation of the subject as 
presented in "First Year Harmony." (Augmented Edition) . 125 
Key to First Year Harmony. With additional exercises. 1.00 
First Year Counterpoint. Includes the five orders of 
counterpoint in two and three parts, analysis, written 

work and test questions 136 

First Year Analysis (Musical Form). Following intro- 
ductory chapters on the elements of form (Motive, 
Phrase, Period) the smaller forms are taken up for de- 
tailed analysis. (Revised and Augmented Edition) 1.25 

Musical Form and Analysis. Containing the numbers re- 
quired for analysis in the preceding book 1.00 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 12S) 



STANDARD BOOKS ON HISTORY AND APPRECIATION 



Net 



.60 



JOHNS, CLAYTON 

Do yon Know That ? Valuable hints, observations, 
thoughts and facts about music $ 

MacDOWELL, EDWARD 

Critical and Historical Essays. America's great composer 
has furnished one of the outstanding books on the his- 
tory and development of the art of music. It contains 
twenty-one chapters in which Mr. MacDowell outlines 
somewhat the technical side of music, and gives a gen- 
eral idea of the history and aesthetics of the art 2.50 

SPALDING, WALTER R. 

Music: An Art and a Language. Presents a working 
knowledge of the structure and modes of presentation of 
standard works in music, and is written primarily with 
a view to training listeners 2.50 



Net 



TAPPER, THOMAS 

First Year Music History. The narrative, though direct 
and concise, nevertheless includes enough detail to ren- 
der the story human and interesting, and to indicate the 
natural relationship of persons, causes and events. Ques- 
tions at the end of each chapter outline the principal 
topics discussed 1.76 

From Palestrina to Grieg. (First Year Music Biography). 
Each chapter is concerned with a single composer, and 
has at the end a synopsis and review questions which 
serve to emphasize the main points and test the stu- 
dent's knowledge. The book may be used for class work, 
for reference purposes, or may be read for general in- 
struction and enjoyment. 1.75 



SIGHT READING 

FAELTEN, REINHOLD Nt 

One Hundred Ear Training Exercises in Progressive 
Order. Deals with rhythm, pitch, intervals, chords, etc. . $ .50 
HARRIS, CUTHBERT 

First Steps in Ear Training. An easy and practical 
method of ear training up to a stage sufficiently advanced 
to meet the needs of the average music student. A 
knowledge of the rudiments of music up to key signa- 
tures and time signatures is all that is needed to precede 

the course 75 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. S59) 



AND EAR TRAINING 

MAXWELL, DOROTHY ** 

Sight Reading. A first sight reading book for students 
of any age, designed to teach the student to think before 
touching the keys, and to hear mentally before produc- 
ing the musical sounds 76 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. SS7) 
TAPPER, THOMAS 

Sight Reading and Memory Lessons. Exercises and pieces 
accompanied by analysis and suggestions for correct 

procedure in reading at sight and memorizing. 1.00 

(Schmidt's Educational Series^ No. If) 



SOME PRACTICAL THINGS IN PIANO PLAYING by ARTHUR FOOTE 

A practical handbook giving musical precepts and principles of artistic playing. Discusses the mechanism of the piano, relaxation, 
touch, pedalling, voice leading, etc., and contains numerous illustrations as well as practical exercises. Price 60 cents net 



THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO. 



BOSTON: 120 Boylston Street 



NEW YORK: 8 West 40th Street